Limelife Broadway got the Death Bubba


Limelife Broadway > Hempstar is back at $5 gr....  also we received new shatter ; purple kush , pink kush.

Shatter, named for its often peanut brittle-like texture and tendency to break into glass-like shards, is a concentrated derivative of marijuana. It has a THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) level of between 70 and 99 per cent.


$50 gr , 2 gr. for $90 and 3 gr. for $120


see our complete product list 


How's the death bubba Finger rub @ Limelife Broadway ? ... Deadly


Super Nice Jack Max At LimeLife Broadway, Only $7,50 for limited time.

One of the best and most popular sativa,

This jack max puts you in a creative and euphoric mood.


we have a wide selection Sativa, indica and hybrid flowers


HAPPY MONDAY!!! Get 3 joints for $5!!!

3 Joints for $5!!!
3 Joints for $5!!!
Get three pre rolled joints for only $5!!!

JUST ARRIVED!!! Cotton Candy @ Hastings Location!!!

Cotton Candy $10/g
Cotton Candy $10/g
Brand new Cottom Candy strain available now at our Hastings location!  
Don't forget - Debit and Credit Card transactions to be accepted very very soon!!!  STAY TUNED!

COMING SOON! Debit and Credit Cards Accepted!

Coming Soon!!!
Coming Soon!!!
Our Hastings, Nanaimo and Port Alberni locations will be accepting Interac, Visa and MasterCard transactions very soon!!!

Limelife Hastings Has Best Medical Cannabis Prices

Cheapest Cannabis in Town
Cheapest Cannabis in Town
$10 grams every day, the cheapest prices out of all Limelife locations!

Nanaimo Location got an updated menu for you .. super nice Shishkaberry and Purple Nukem


Polarlight , OG, Cali Kush, Lsd and Super Silver Haze are new strains at Limelife Broadway.


1167 Granville Limelife location also got a new look.

How do you like it ?


45 West Broadway Looks better now 

How do you like it ? 


Really rare Afghan Gold Seal and Moroccan Hashish. Available at Limelife Broadway Location Only.

Only $25 gr. , 1/8 for $80 and 1/4 for $150

Broadway live menu online









Hashish, often known as hash or hashish oil (BHO), is a cannabis product composed of compressed or purified preparations of stalked resin glands, called trichomes. It contains the same active ingredients—such as THC and other cannabinoids—but often in higher concentrations than unsifted buds or leaves.

Hashish may be solid or resinous depending on the preparation; pressed hashish is usually solid, whereas water-purified hashish—often called “bubble melt hash”—is often a paste-like substance with varying hardness and pliability, its color most commonly light to dark brown but varying toward yellow/tan, black or red.[1] It is consumed by being heated in a pipe, hookah, bong, bubbler, vaporizer, hot knife (placed between the tips of two heated knife blades), smoked in joints, mixed with cannabis buds or tobacco, cooked in foods.

The Effects
The major active ingredient in marijuana and hashish is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The exact nature of its action is not entirely understood, although it is believed to change to a psychoactive compound in the liver. The higher the THC content, the stronger the effects. The average potency of marijuana in this country has increased since the 1970s.

The effect sought in cannabis use is euphoria, a feeling of wellbeing and elation. This is usually accompanied by a state of altered perception, particularly of distance and time. The euphoric feeling usually peaks within ten to thirty minutes of smoking marijuana, but residual effects may last from two to three hours.
Marijuana and hashish can impair balance, coordination, speech and thinking. Even small amounts of marijuana have been found to adversely affect driving performance.

Some users experience adverse reactions ranging from mild anxiety to panic. Acute psychotic reactions are rare, but episodes of paranoia are possible.


Boxing Day At Limelife Broadway, death pink $10, island Pink $10, XXX $10, Pink girl $10... Death bubba Budder $35 gr. and $20 a half gram....only today.

All $14 and $12 strains have been tagged $10 for today dec 26th ,

also the Death bubba budder is at $35 a gr. instead of $50.

and all our shatter at $40 gr instead of $50.. only at 45 west broadway location.  

we accept other membership.

Hurry up this will be gone tomorrow.


Death Bubba oil is back .. 1 gr .. 1.2 gr.. and 1.5 gr.. starting at $25


complete menu


Port Alberni Menu updated


What is CBD?



Cannabidiol, CBD Rich CannabisCannabidiol—CBD—is a cannabis compound that has significant medical benefits, but does not make people feel “stoned” and can actually counteract the psychoactivity of THC. The fact that CBD-rich cannabis is non-psychoactive or less psychoactive than THC-dominant strains makes it an appealing option for patients looking for relief from inflammation, pain, anxiety, psychosis, seizures, spasms, and other conditions without disconcerting feelings of lethargy or dysphoria.


Scientific and clinical research—much of it sponsored by the US government—underscores CBD’s potential as a treatment for a wide range of conditions, including arthritis, diabetes, alcoholism, MS, chronic pain, schizophrenia, PTSD,depression, antibiotic-resistant infections, epilepsy, and other neurological disorders. CBD has demonstrable neuroprotective and neurogenic effects, and its anti-cancer properties are currently being investigated at several academic research centers in the United States and elsewhere.

Project CBD responds to inquiries from all over the world. Almost everyone wants to know where to get CBD-rich products and how to use them for maximum benefit. After decades in which only high-THC cannabis was available in North America and beyond, CBD-rich strains and products are now available to medical users.

“CBD-rich” versus “CBD dominant:” By “CBD-rich,” we mean a cannabis strain or product that has equal amounts of CBD and THC, or more CBD than THC (usually at least 4 percent CBD by dry weight.). By “CBD-dominant,” we mean strains or products that are CBD-rich but have very little THC content.


Get Cbd for Sleep Disorders, insomnia, insufficient sleep.. 

Million people suffer from insomnia, insufficient sleep or another sleep disorder. CBD has been mistakenly described as sedating. In modest doses, CBD is mildly alerting. Cannabidiol activates the same adenosine receptors as caffeine, a stimulant. But several patients with sleep issues report that ingesting a CBD-rich tincture or extract a few hours before bedtime has a balancing effect that facilitates a good night’s sleep.  


New flowers at Limelife Broadway.. Hindu, XXX, Bubba supreme


New Concentrates at Limelife Broadway

Shatter is smooth, clear and solid. It is the purest and most potent form because it involves a second extraction process that removes fats, lipids and waxes. This can result in over 80 percent THC. 


Check the Limelife Broadway's menu


Nanaimo here is your updated menu .. MediKush $14 gr. 

OG Kush
commonly described as sativa-like in its euphoric and happy effects that combat stress and anxiety. It has an earthy pine scent with woody undertones, an aroma that has become the signature of OG Kush varieties and descendants. With OG Kush, patients most commonly cite improvements in migraines, ADD/ADHD, and stress disorders.
1/8 $35 ¼ $65 ½ $125 Oz $240
$10 gr.
is a potent strain that is known for its ability to provide a strong indica body buzz very quickly. For this reason it’s often recommended medically to treat chronic pain ailments. The sativa qualities of this strain keep this heavy hitter from being a complete knockout, but it isn’t recommended for days when a lot of work needs to get done.
1/8 $35 ¼ $65 ½ $125 Oz $240
Purple Kush
$10 gr.
Purple Kush is a pure indica strain that emerged from the Oakland area of California as the result of a Hindu Kush and Purple Afghani cross. Its aroma is subtle and earthy with sweet overtones typical of Kush varieties. Blissful, long-lasting euphoria blankets the mind while physical relaxation rids the body of pain, sleeplessness, and stress.
1/8 $35 ¼ $65 ½ $125 Oz $240
$12 gr.
Skunk #1 is a hybrid strain that has influenced cannabis on a global scale, parenting a horde of Skunk crosses since it first bloomed in the late 1970s.. As its name suggests, Skunk buds radiate with an aromatic blend of sour skunkiness and subtle earthy notes. This hybrid offers elevated creativity through its high-energy buzz, while stress and appetite loss melt away with Skunk potency.
1/8 $40 ¼ $80 ½ $160 Oz $320

View the complete menu


Big day Special tomorrow at our Hastings location

Wednesday big Day,

Budshake $1,

all concentrates $40 gr.

and all $12 and $14 strains at $10 prices


 Hastings location


326 East Hastings St.

Vancouver, BC V6A 1P4


Open everyday

7 am to 10 pm




Limelife Port Alberni got a Phone Number... 

  Port Alberni location 


3092 3rd Ave

Port Alberni, BC V9Y 2A5


 Open everyday

10 am to 8 pm




Check our updated special at Hastings location

Monday and Tuesday 3 joints for $5

Wednesday big Day, Budshake $1,

all concentrates $40 gr.

and all $12 and $14 strains at $10 prices

Thursday and Sunday hash $10 gr. instead of $15

Friday all $12 and $14 strains at $10 prices

Saturday all concentrates $40 gr.


Fruit loops on sale at $12/g ,Super Silver Haze on sale at $14/g @ Nanaimo and Port Alberni Location.

Silver Haze was the first seed strain to deliver the full-strength Haze experience in a fatter, faster, more compact form. Crossing Haze with a non-dominant indica Northern Lights, Silver Haze maintains strong but clear-headed sativa effects. Introduced by Sensi Seeds, the Silver Haze gets its name from the massive amount of shiny THC glands covering the buds, sticky sativa blend that boasts an energetic, long-lasting body high. The uplifting effects are a great remedy for high stress levels or when suffering from a lack of appetite or nausea.


Nanaimo       Port Alberni 


Doobies, pre-rolled, fat joints , Time Warp, K-Bomb, Lemon Kush, Organic Pink, LSD, BlueBerry, Lemon Haze... get some today at the Broadway location.

$3 - $4 - $5

Online Menu

Port Alberni, Limelife is Now open and ready to serve you. 

Nice, Clean and Professional environment.


Limelife is proud to bring in services by helping and guiding all patients to the product that will meet their needs.


We have quality flowers and affordable medicine like a wide variety of cannabis products. 


Check out our Store page info and online Menu 


How Cannabis Suppositories Can Save Lives

''You want me to put that WHERE?''

This is a common reaction to the suggestion that cannabis can be used as a suppository. Rectal administrations (suppositories) have an unfairly bad reputation in North America, despite the diverse benefits they offer. This article aims to educate about the advantages associated with the rectal application of cannabis and provide a simple set of guidelines for the effective use of suppositories.

There are many advantages to the rectal administration of cannabis not afforded by other routes. Medicine may still be administered even if the oral route is impaired (e.g., due to vomiting, an injured jaw or throat, or gastrointestinal difficulties) or disallowed due to the oral intake restrictions that are frequently required both before and after surgery. Avoiding the gastrointestinal tract also prevents first-pass metabolism by the stomach and liver, which break down many different molecules into their constituent parts (including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, otherwise known as THC), and allows the active constituents to reach the blood in much higher concentrations.

In the case of THC, the liver transforms around half of what is ingested into the significantly more psychoactive metabolite 11-Hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. While not harmful in and of itself and potentially of therapeutic benefit, this molecule causes much more intense cognitive effects than THC. Rectal administration not only avoids these effects, but also allows a much greater proportion of THC to eventually reach the blood stream. This increase in overall efficiency is also shown in the different levels of bioavailability that different administration routes afford, as seen in Fig. 1. Rectal administration also allows for medicine to exert effects over localized ailments (e.g., hemorrhoidal tissue, inflammation of the rectum, or tumours in the rectal cavity). This form of use also has a much faster uptake than oral administration (around 10 minutes, on average) and leads to more consistent blood concentrations of the active constituents. The speed and reliability of their uptake combined with their circumvention of many of the issues surrounding both ingestion and inhalation make rectal applications an excellent addition to both new and pre-existing therapeutic regimens.image


Fig. 1 – Comparative bioavailability of different administration routes
Inhalation : 10 – 25% efficiency, highly variable, depends largely on the individual’s level of experience
Oral : around 20% efficiency, highly variable, even between doses within a single individual
Rectal : around 50% – 70% efficiency, with predictable effects even between different individuals

When designing a personalized medication regimen, it is important to know the various timings involved with a given administration route. With suppositories, most people will begin to notice initial effects within the first 10 – 15 minutes after insertion. These effects usually last for between 4 – 8 hours, depending on the individual’s physiology and tolerance to cannabis. This swift increase in effect allows for acute dosing in many cases, although this depends both on the situation and on specific individual needs. There are several issues that can slow absorption from the rectum to the blood stream. Diarrhea and fecal matter can slow or prevent the active ingredients from reaching the rectal wall and being absorbed. Tumours or cysts on the rectal wall can also slow or prevent absorption. In this case, less medicine would reach the blood, but as the tumours are likely the intended target(s) of the suppository, the direct delivery of the active constituents may help prevent an overall reduction in efficacy. Finally, rectal dehydration can drastically reduce the effectiveness of suppositories. Staying well hydrated by maintaining a healthy consumption of both water and electrolytes should prevent this in most cases, but specific medical conditions may cause it as well, in which case the solution may not be as simple. As always, if there are concerns, a medical professional should be consulted.

Anyone who decides to take advantage of the benefits provided by suppositories should do so with a good understanding of the process involved.


BlueBerry available @ broadway , granville and Hastings location

The sweet flavors of fresh blueberries combine with relaxing effects to produce a long-lasting sense of euphoria. Many medical patients appreciate Blueberry for its ability to suppress pain and relieve stress, while connoisseurs and growers admire the strain for its colorful hues and high THC content.


Limelife Broadway, great place to find quality  pre-roll doobies..

$4 - Lemon Kush

$5 - Violator, Girl Scout, Rockstar


$6 - Death Bubba, ,Pink Diamond, XXX 

updated menu


On the $14 menu, Premium Island Pink and Island Girl scout @ Broadway location

plus..  we got 18 more strains in store 

2 strains at $5, 1 strain at $6 and 1 strain at $7,50


Lots of cbd products @ 45 west Broadway.. CBD Tincture, CBD cream, CBD pills, CBD suppository and CBD Concentrate.

CBD cap 40 MG.3$/ea.

2 for $5  or  20 for $40 


CBD Concentrate $70

    CBD : 200 mg THC : 0.10 mg


CBD Tincture$45

CBD :5.5 ml contain 25 ml


CBD Tincture (oil base)$45

CBD :5.5 ml contain 25 ml

CBD/THC Suppository $15 each

CBD: 60 mg THC: 60mg  

Online Menu Broadway location




Crazy Black Diamond @ 1167 Granville and also @ 117 Nicol street in Nanaimo 

Regular price 14$ gr. but today Nov 25th get it for $12/gr.

Black Diamond is a Northern California strain ideal for patients who need strong medication but still want to be active and sociable. A cross between Blackberry and Diamond OG, its flowers have a glittery trichome covering and purple coloring that make it a beautiful gem to look at. The strain’s aroma is musky and earthy, almost like a deep red wine. Black Diamond is known to cause fits of giggles and is a great strain for hanging out with friends or catching up on TV shows at home. This strain tends to make consumers extremely hungry, making it a good choice for those looking to increase their appetite

(just make sure you have some snacks on hand).


Here is the Daily special for Nanaimo and Hastings location.

Monday- Tuesday - 3 for $5 joints 

Wednesday an Saturday- all concentrates $45/g

Thursday an Sunday - $10 / g hash

and on Friday all Flowers at 10$/gr.

Nanaimo Menu                                            Hastings Menu


Menu updated in our Nanaimo Location

New Strains to Try.. watch our full and updated menu Online


Make a stop at Granville Location. A wide selection of products have been updated.

Flowers starting a $5 , Bath bomb at $10 , 3 strains of shatter.. watch more

New strains at Hastings Location

Check out the live menu  $5 and $6 available ..

Death Bubba and Nukem  At $12

Bud Shake
$ 2.50/gr.
Orange Crush
Orange Crush is a sativa-dominant cannabis strain with a super sweet tangy flavor and aroma. Bred by BC Growers Association with California Orange and Blueberry for parents, Orange Crush produces a powerful cerebral sensation that can last up to two hours.
1/8 17,50$ - ¼ 35$ - ½ 70$ Oz 140$
Seawarp was created as a joint project with Texada Island Genetics. It is a three-way hybrid cross between Sea Level x Ben Johnson x Texada Timewarp outdoors. The offspring produces very large fast flowering plants with great yield and lemon taste.
1/8 $20 - ¼ $40 - ½ $80 - Oz $160
CBK ( Chocolate Banana Kush )
With genetics like Banana and the enormously legendary OG Kush, this strain is sure to be potent. With a THC content between 18% and 20%, Banana Kush not only packs a serious punch, but is arguably the best tasting California cannabis available. It is a favorite among dispensaries mostly in Southern California, but has recently expanded to be found in dispensaries throughout the state. This bud is one of those strains that tastes exactly how it smells.
1/8 $35 ¼ $65 ½ $125 Oz $240
Sliver Haze
is a must try for cannabis connoisseurs Following a long line of sativa genetics it provides a strong heavy body sensation and will put you to sleep in a hurry. While great for pain management, muscle spasms, and insomnia,Silver Haze's potent sedative effects make it a strictly nighttime strain. The aroma of this plant is nearly as strong as its effects. Featuring a strong skunk-like scent and piney taste,
1/8 35$ - ¼ 65$ - ½ 125$ - Oz 240$
Jack Frost
Jack Herer's gene pool and then crossed it with Super Skunk and Haze. Jack Frost offers an earthy citrus aroma, impressive yields, and the active cerebral legacy of her Jack Herer parent. This hybrid gets its name from its lightning-fast onset which may prove useful to patients needing immediate symptom relief.
1/8 $35 - ¼ $65 - ½ $125 - Oz $240
Uk Cheese
UK Cheese became popular for its energetic, euphoric head effects combined with its impressive pain relief potential. It quickly spread beyond the borders of its British home. Most users experience alert, sativa effects that allow for mental relaxation without sedation, but it may hasten bedtime for some. Effects tend to be felt in the head first, generally around the eyes, then spread throughout the entire body, producing muscle relaxation and even some tingly numbness.
1/8 $35 ¼ $65 ½ $125 Oz $240
MKU (Master Kush Ultra)
MKU is a popular indica cross between Hindu Kush and Skunk. The effects are that of a potent indica, can make you very sleepy and very little motivation to get stuff done. It will numb all pain and give the user a restful pain free sleep.
1/8 $40 -- ¼ $80 -- ½ $160 -- Oz $320
Death Bubba
Vancouver's best kush, Death Bubba, has an unmistakable aroma which can be smelled across the room. A little goes a long way with this strain. It's capable of treating many medical conditions and issues, so it's not the ideal social strain. The Death is better suited for personal use right before bed. If you suffer from pain, be mindful since smoking it in the morning is strong enough to put you back to bed.
1/8 $40 -- ¼ $80 -- ½ $160 -- Oz $320
The mostly indica Nuken is a Canadian strain bred by combining genetics from Kish (a cross of two Shishkaberry parents) and God Bud. Her even-keeled effects are delivered alongside a sweet, earthy aroma of fresh herbs and grass. While undeniably strong, Nuken typically leaves you functional enough to still enjoy hobbies and the company of friends. Nuken blooms with rounded, dense buds covered in a blanket of crystal resin veiling its sage hues.
1/8 $40 ¼ $80 ½ $160 Oz $320
Rockstar, a cross between Rockbud and Sensi Star, is a potent indica-dominant hybrid that delivers strong effects without debilitating sedation. With aromatic notes of spice and grape, Rockstar is a favorite medicine for headaches, pain, and sleep disorders. Its powerful body and cerebral effects make Rockstar popular among growers, who typically harvest their outdoor plants in mid-October.
1/8 $40 - ¼ $80 - ½ $160 - Oz $320
Pink Kush, as coveted as its OG Kush relative, is an indica-dominant hybrid with powerful body-focused effects. In its exceptional variations, pink hairs burst from bright green buds barely visible under a blanket of sugar-like trichomes, with traces of a sweet vanilla and candy perfume. Even for veteran consumers, the heaviness of this strain could be considered overpowering, and even small doses eliminate pain, insomnia, and appetite loss. Relaxation runs in Pink Kush’s indica genes, promoting rest and stress relief without total sedation.
1/8 $40 ¼ $80 ½ $160 Oz $320
Purple Candy
Purple Candy is one of those indica-dominant crosses that’s good all around, especially for those who need strong relaxing medication. This British Columbian strain is commonly thought to be a cross of BC Sweet Tooth and Mendocino Purps, and its large flowers with rich purple coloring and amber hairs support the purple genetics. Purple Candy’s frosty buds will leave your hands sticky, much like normal candy, but instead of a sugar rush it will provide some happy sativa effects. The sensation will settle into a full body buzz that may leave you lazy and ready for bed. Sugary-sweet in scent and taste, Purple Candy will have you thinking of your
1/8 $40 - ¼ $80 - ½ $160 - Oz $320

6$ Flowers are back at Broadway


Learned About the Proper Dosage of Medical Cannabis

There's been a lot of talk in the 21st century about legalizing marijuana for medical use while proper dosage has been an issue that has not gotten as much attention in the media. Canada has left the issue up to doctors whereas in the United States there's almost a sense that it's up to patients themselves. Doctors are learning, however, from the patients themselves, what level of dosage works with respect to the following factors. 

Potency of Various Cannabis Types

If there were just one kind of cannabis plant, doctors would have a much easier time recommending a certain dosage. But the reality is that there are literally thousands of various cannabis strains around the world. Some strains are very potent while others do not have much effect on the mind or body. Additionally there are two separate components of cannabis that have medicinal value: the intoxicating THC chemical that is typically smoked and the non-intoxicating CBD chemical, which is often administered in liquid form. 

Complicating the matter further is that eating cannabis can be much more potent and intoxicating than smoking cannabis. To some degree, you must decide as a patient what your limit of intoxication should be, since it varies among different individuals. For people who do not like the psychoactive effects of getting high, they should limit their serving of a marijuana brownie to a small square, perhaps the size of a few sugar cubes.

Other ways of ingesting cannabis can be through inhaling with a vaporizer and swallowing a capsule form that is manufactured by a pharmaceutical company. Proper dosage levels vary for each form of ingestion, as effects can be felt more quickly from smoking it than eating it while the effects of edible cannabis can last much longer. Experimentation should be gradual for new users. 

Toxicity and Tolerance Levels

Overall, scientists have found cannabis to have low toxicity without much concern about an overdose. It is more likely, for example, that a heavy user of cannabis will simply fall asleep if dosage is excessive. Unlike certain dangerous pharmaceutical drugs, cannabis appears to present not even a minor threat of fatal consequences. Exceptions might be for patients who suffer from heart problems, in which cannabis should simply be avoided, since it can affect heart rate. 

Even though marijuana is not considered physically addictive, the more you use the drug the more tolerance you build, requiring stronger dosage to get the desired effect. While it can be psychologically habitual, casual users do not exhibit many side effects beyond dry mouth and red eyes. Taking a few puffs occasionally is all some people need for reducing stress and other dispositions. 

Measurements for Medical Cannabis, Proper Dosage

Despite all the mysteries surrounding medical cannabis, proper dosage can be measured and over time, there will likely be more definitive standards for dosage. One of the few medical professionals who has published proper dosage amounts is Donald Abrams, MD. He is a Professor of Clinical Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. He concluded that experienced cannabis smokers can regulate their own dosage in order to achieve the desired effect. He also offered "final dosing recommendations" based on the strength of THC. 

For cannabis with 10 percent THC, Abrams suggests a daily dosage of between .15 to 5.55 grams. As the THC level increases for medical cannabis, proper dosage decreases in grams. Marijuana with 20 percent THC, for example, corresponds with a dosage of .08 to 2.79 grams while 30 percent corresponds with .01 to 1.86 grams. This dosage recommendation is similar to other low toxicity drugs.


New flowers at Limelife Broadway Pink , MKU and White OG

Update Done at Granville... 19 strains available and 10 different concentrates

We have 19 strains right now on our menu..

Get your favorite flower.

Romulan just came in.

We also had nice comments on our Master Kush Live Butter

Don't miss the weekend special 


Study: Patients Replace Prescription Drugs With Cannabis

Study: Patients Replace Prescription Drugs With Cannabis

Patients with legal access to medical marijuana reduce their consumption of conventional pharmaceuticals, according to a demographic review of patient characteristics published online in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.

Investigators affiliated with the Medical Marijuana Research Institute in Mesa surveyed responses from 367 state-qualified patients recruited from four Arizona medical cannabis dispensaries. Respondents were more likely to be male, in their mid-40s, and daily consumers of cannabis.

Respondents most often reported using cannabis therapeutically to treat symptoms of chronic pain, muscle spasms, nausea, anxiety, arthritis, depression, headaches, insomnia, and stress. Patients typically said that cannabis provided “a lot of relief” or “almost complete relief” of their symptoms and that its efficacy was greater than that of more conventional medications.

Patients also reported reducing their use of pharmaceuticals. Over 70 percent of respondents reported using other medications “a little less frequently” or “much less frequently” for 24 of the 42 conditions specified. Over 90 percent of those who reported consuming cannabis to mitigate symptoms of nausea, headache, muscle spasms, fibromyalgia, bowel distress, and chronic pain acknowledged using pharmaceuticals less frequently once they had initiated cannabis therapy.

Previously published survey data of medical cannabis patients similarly report subjects’ willingness to substitute cannabis for prescription drugs, particularly opioids.

A study published in July by the National Bureau of Economic Research, a non-partisan think-tank, reported, “[S]tates permitting medical marijuana dispensaries experience a relative decrease in both opioid addictions and opioid overdose deaths compared to states that do not.” Data published in 2014 in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Internal Medicine similarly reported, “States with medical cannabis laws had a 24.8 percent lower mean annual opioid overdose mortality rate compared with states without medical cannabis laws.”

Full text of the study, “Medical cannabis in Arizona: Patient characteristics, perceptions, and impressions of medical cannabis legalization,” appears in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.


New marijuana Product -CANNdle- Cannabis Candle available at 45 west Broadway, Vancouver.

Launching Special $35 instead of Reg. price at $45


Approx burn time 30 hours, really nice lemon smell,

chill around for 10 to 30 minutes to feel the calming and relaxing benefits.


Only 15 left in Stock at Broadway


Marijuana: the political, legal and medical angles


Medical Marijuanna


Political view


FEDERAL ELECTION 2015 :Marijuana legalization urged for open debate

Legalizing and regulating marijuana would help – not hurt – young people who suffer from mental illness or use the drug to self-medicate, say psychiatrists and addiction experts, who argue that is the only way for the public to have an open dialogue on the harms associated with the illegal drug.

Marijuana has emerged as an issue in the federal election campaign. The Liberals promise legalization, the NDP pledge at least to decriminalize it, and the Conservatives vow further crackdowns and are using the debate to attack their opponents.

Among the Conservatives’ main arguments against legalizing pot is that doing so would put youth at risk, pointing to evidence that the drug is linked to psychosis and schizophrenia.

But Elisabeth Baerg Hall, a youth psychiatrist and clinical professor at the University of British Columbia, says that if marijuana was legalized and regulated, Canadians could “really talk about the dangers,” as teachers and public health officials do with tobacco and alcohol.

“The reality now is I have many, many patients in my young adult population who are self-medicating with pot,” said Dr. Baerg Hall, who also runs Langara College’s mental-health program.

Young cannabis users do not often have examples of what responsible or excessive consumption looks like.

“I try to say, ‘Okay, we all understand alcohol is a bit of a social lubricant, so you have a glass of wine, but has anyone ever said to you, ‘You’re anxious and depressed so you should take five glasses of alcohol a day?’ Nobody talks like that, and for a good reason,” she said.

As long as pot remains illegal, young Canadians, who according to the UN, consume more cannabis than any of their peers in the industrialized world, will have no official source of information about it, says Benedikt Fischer, a senior scientist at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto.

“No teacher today can give any advice to young people about cannabis,” said Dr. Fischer, whose organization released a framework for legalizing the drug last year. “If they say anything except, ‘It’s illegal, don’t do it,’ it could be interpreted as promoting drug use and the next day, they’re sued by parents.”

The Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, funded by the government to study the use and abuse of drugs, estimated that about a quarter of teens and young adults used marijuana in 2013, which is more than two and half times the percentage of adults over 25 years old.

Last December, Health Canada spent millions of dollars on an anti-marijuana ad campaign that claimed smoking too much pot reduces the IQs of teens. Three leading national medical bodies refused to endorse it, calling it a “political” anti-pot campaign, and experts have questioned the IQ claim.

Conservative party spokesman Stephen Lecce said in an e-mailed statement that the party believes “marijuana is an illegal drug with dangerous and lasting health effects, especially on our youth.”

“Protecting kids from the very real mental-health risks of marijuana such as psychosis and even schizophrenia are paramount for our Conservative government,” Mr. Lecce’s statement said.

Scientific evidence indicates the two conditions are linked to heavy use of the drug, but no causality has been proven, experts say.

At a North Vancouver forum on youth marijuana addiction and ADHD late last week, Anthony Ocana, a family doctor and addiction specialist, said his younger patients who have mental health issues such as anxiety or bipolar disorder will often smoke marijuana, which is easily attainable, to calm their symptoms.

Dr. Ocana told the crowd he has noticed one serious long-term harmful effect among his patients who smoke almost daily: the gradual decline of their cognitive function.

He added that psychosis is the biggest short-term risk to his patients under 25 years old that consume cannabis on more than 20 days a month. These episodes often come from doses that are too high in THC, marijuana’s psychoactive substance, or mixing the drug with other substances or medicines.

Research has shown the brain develops its neuro-pathways well into a person’s 20s and it is important that the full effects of cannabis use during this time are understood, Dr. Baerg Hall said.


Marijuana and cannabis products as Medicine

Medical marijuana is quickly becoming a popular treatment for hundreds of thousands of patients for whom conventional treatments have failed

By 2013, Liz Gorman had lost hope. Her daughter Maddie, then 6, suffered from relentless seizures, untamed by 13 medications and even brain surgery. Maddie could barely fall and stay asleep, much less learn to read. Even waking up triggered seizures. Desperate, Gorman began weighing a treatment – a cannabis extract called Charlotte's Web – she'd never thought she would try. "I'm a conservative Republican, the wife of a major in the Marine Corps," she says. "It never dawned on me that this was the way to fix my child." Moreover, getting access to Charlotte's Web would mean leaving her husband and home in Raleigh, North Carolina, and moving Maddie to Colorado, where the extract is made and where in 2012 medical marijuana was legalized. In the end, willing to do anything to help her daughter, Gorman relocated to Colorado Springs in December 2013. She now gives Maddie one drop of Charlotte's Web oil twice each day and marvels at her improvement. Her seizure rate is down by 95 percent. "I hate to use the word miraculous," she says, "but for us, it really has been."

Federal law says marijuana is a controlled substance with a high potential for abuse and "no currently accepted medical use." But that hasn't stopped 23 states and the District of Columbia from legalizing varieties of cannabis – a genus that includes marijuana and hemp, which has therapeutic but not mind-altering properties. States have approved cannabis use for conditions as wildly dissimilar as epilepsy, chronic pain, the loss of appetite and nausea caused by chemotherapy, muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, diabetes, glaucoma and post-traumatic stress disorder. In some states, retailers are cautiously stocking their shelves with cannabis-based edibles, oils, mists, lotions, lip balms and flower buds. They're moving cautiously because federal law trumps state law, and while some members of Congress want to prevent the government from intervening, there's been no consensus on action yet. "There's legitimate fear in the marketplace that, if we go in and set up shop, we'll have the police on our backs," says Douglas A. Berman, professor of law at Ohio State University.

In March, several bills were introduced, the most ambitious a measure that would let states legalize marijuana for medical use without federal interference. Another bill would exclude Charlotte's Web from the list of controlled substances. Other measures would limit federal prosecutors' power to go after growers, vendors and users who obey state laws.

Meantime, as people like Gorman testify to the plant's effects, medical marijuana is rapidly becoming a go-to treatment for hundreds of thousands of patients for whom conventional treatments have failed. This is true despite the fact that research into the plant's benefits is worryingly thin. A sweeping review of the research done so far, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in June, found that most studies have produced, at best, only "moderately" trustworthy evidence of effectiveness, mostly in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy, people suffering chronic pain, and multiple sclerosis patients with pain and spasticity. The evidence was "poor" for many state-approved indications, such as hepatitis C, Crohn's disease, Parkinson's disease and Tourette syndrome, wrote psychiatrists Deepak Cyril D'Souza and Mohini Ranganathan of the Yale University School of Medicine in an accompanying editorial. Research on seizures is going on now. On the other hand, cannabis contains a potential pharmacopeia of more than 80 chemicals called cannabinoids and approximately 400 other compounds. "I do believe if we did the appropriate research, we would find some of those compounds have true medicinal value," says Otis Brawley, chief medical officer of the American Cancer Society.

The cannabinoid responsible for marijuana's mind-altering properties, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, was identified in the early 1960s along with the active ingredient in Charlotte's Web, cannabidiol, which lacks THC's trippy high. One explanation for medical marijuana's broad biological activity is that humans, like all other creatures, have innate cannabinoids that bind to receptors in the brain and immune system and play a critical role in growth and development, scientists say. Research in animals shows that if you block cannabinoid receptors in infancy, the animals will stop eating and die.

The receptors' location may offer clues to cannabinoids' perceived medical effects. One set of receptors is concentrated in nerve centers linked to pain perception, for example; a second set, mainly found in the immune system, may account for cannabis' potent – and well-established – anti-inflammatory properties. Scientists have found that cannabinoids act as a nervous system dimmer switch, slowing or blocking signals between nerve cells.

High concentrations of signal-blocking cannabinoid receptors throughout the brain may explain why cannabinoids appear to quell seizures. Receptors are similarly dense in regions that control movement, promote appetite and combat nausea, which may explain why marijuana seems to relieve muscle spasticity and boost appetite. Although cannabis has many side effects – dry mouth, bloodshot eyes, inceased appetite, diminished short-term memory, anxiety and impaired reaction time among them – no fatal overdose has ever been reported. That's likely due to the relative absence of cannabinoid receptors in the brain stem, the region that controls heart rate and breathing.

Some researchers believe that cannabinoids may actually treat cancer itself. In the lab, they stop cells from dividing and slow the spread of cancer cells into nearby tissues. And researchers in Spain and England have shown that cannabinoids can shrink brain tumors in animals. "Our animal work is very convincing indeed," says Stephen Wright, chief medical officer of GW Pharmaceuticals, a British firm that is developing cannabis-derived drugs. The company is now studying a drug in patients with recurrent brain cancer, Wright says, with results due next year.

Beyond the plant extracts, two drugs that are synthetic versions of THC, Marinol and Cesamet, are available by prescription across the U.S. Both were approved in 1985 to relieve nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Marinol also has been shown to combat weight loss in people with HIV/AIDS. In addition, GW Pharmaceuticals has three pharmaceutical-grade cannabis medicines, including one, still unnamed, that is being tested in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Sativex, a mix of cannabidiol and THC, is approved in 28 countries for relieving spasticity and is being tested in the U.S. for its ability to relieve cancer pain.

The third drug, Epidiolex, made of cannabidiol only, is being tested in children with severe epilepsy whose seizures haven't responded to other drugs. Preliminary results in more than 130 children revealed that after 24 weeks of treatment, their average number of seizures had fallen by 45 percent, says neurologist Orrin Devinsky, director of the NYU Langone Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, who is leading the trial. In Colorado, neurologist Edward Maa, chief of the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at Denver Health Medical Center, is taking advantage of the community using Charlotte's Web to closely monitor the experience of 150 seizure patients.

Maddie, now 8, is rapidly making the headway she couldn't when constantly having seizures. "She knows her ABCs now. She knows her colors and her shapes," says Gorman. "We plan to begin working on sight-words this summer."


FBI Report: Someone Is Arrested Every 51 Seconds for Marijuana Possession

The success of cannabis legalization across the United States over the past several years has somewhat convinced the American public that the War on Weed is a dying animal. However, the latest national crimes statistics published earlier this week by the FBI reveal that law enforcement agencies are continuing to bust people for minor marijuana offenses at a rate significantly higher than arrests for other “epidemic” drugs. 

According to the report, the boys in blue made over 700,000 marijuana-related arrests in 2014, which represents an increase for the first time since 2009. Although this inflation of handcuffs does not show a major uprising in the way cops in prohibition districts are still handling weed, it does suggest that these forces have at least ramped up their marijuana enforcement to a degree—despite public opinion showing nationwide support for pot legalization.

What is most alarming, however, is that the majority of these arrests were not attributed to hardcore drug trafficking operations, but for simple possession.

The data shows that 88 percent of all the arrests made in 2014 were for people who were busted for marijuana possession alone. In fact, just over 5 percent of the arrests were for larger crimes involving the illegal cultivation and distribution of the herb. This means that over 600,000 people went to jail last year for using a substance that is now legal for recreational and medicinal purposes or decriminalized in well over half the United States.

“These numbers refute the myth that nobody actually gets arrested for using marijuana," Mason Tvert of the Marijuana Policy Project said in a statement. "It’s hard to imagine why more people were arrested for marijuana possession when fewer people than ever believe it should be a crime." 

There is speculation that while the nation continues to push towards legalization, police operating in prohibition states are trying harder than ever to show they don't support the issue. After all, arrests for pot possession had been on a steady decline since around 2007; that is, until Colorado and Washington launched full-scale cannabis markets and the majority of the nation seemed in favor of doing the same.

Shockingly, nearly 40 percent of all the drug-related arrests last year were for marijuana-related offenses, while arrests for the combination of cocaine, heroin and similar substances ranked only 17 percent.

Some might argue that arrests for marijuana were more prevalent than harder drugs because it is still one of the most popular illicit substances in the country. Yet, with heroin and prescription painkiller abuse reportedly becoming a nationwide epidemic, it seems a bit odd that police are still focused on eliminating stoners in their grand scheme of the domestic drug war.

And while it is true that most of these pot arrests likely did not end in prison terms, they undoubtedly came with brutal consequences. Spending even a night in jail and then being forced to contend with a drug possession charge puts a financial strain on hard working Americans, making it difficult for them to maintain employment and costing them thousands of dollars in fines and court fees.

Perhaps this data will shake some sense into those marijuana activists that continue to fight each other over whether the cannabis plant should be legalized for medicinal or recreational purposes. It is time to stop arguing semantics on this issue and wage a unified war against the lawmakers and government officials who continue to allow the criminalization of all cannabis users.


Marijuana and pain treatment, very few negative effects

This Canadian study is the first long-term examination of potential harmful effects of medical marijuana use in therapy for chronic pain sufferers.

While several studies have looked at the so-called “beneficial” effects of medical marijuana treatments, a new study  has looked at the other side of the issue.

Marijuana and pain treatment, very few negative effects

 Dr Mark Ware (MD,MBBS MRCP MSc) is lead author and principle investigator of the research paper. He is a professor in the Faculty of Medicine at McGill Univeristy and repected researcher in study of pain
Dr Mark Ware (MD,MBBS MRCP MSc) is lead author and principle investigator of the research paper. He is a professor in the Faculty of Medicine at McGill Univeristy and repected researcher in study of pain©  McGill University

Dr Mark Ware (MD,MBBS MRCP MSc) is lead author and principle investigator of the research paper. He is a professor in the Faculty of Medicine at McGill Univeristy and repected researcher in study of pain©  McGill University

Dr. Ware is the lead author and principle investigator of the study published in the Journal of Pain under the title, “Cannabis for the Management of Pain: Assessment of Safety Study (COMPASS)”

It is the first long term study of the safety of medical marijuana use by chronic pain sufferers and Dr Ware said although people were using medical marijuana as part of their therapy, there had been no examination of any harmful side-effects.

The study began in 2004 and ran to 2008, as the researchers began following 215 adult patients, with chronic non-cancer pain, who used medical cannabis, and compared them to a control group of 216 chronic pain sufferers who were not cannabis users.  The study involved seven clinical centres with pain management expertise across Canada located in Fredericton, Halifax, London, Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.

The pain sufferers were given a monthly supply of medical marijuana. The average use was about 2.5 grams per day, and it was either inhaled (smoked) taken orally (edible), or vaporized.

Both the marijuana users and the control group underwent regular medical tests, and also underwent lung function and cognitive testing, and were asked about their pain, mood, and adverse events, and quality of life over the one year of follow up.  A number of the subjects underwent complete panels of blood tests for routine biochemistry, liver and kidney function, and selected hormone levels.

Dr Ware says adverse effects were anything the patients experienced that was unwanted, from a headache, nausea, to dizziness, somnolence, etc. to other much more serious incidents..

No serious negative effects

The study showed that while there were slightly more adverse events such as headache or dizziness compared to the control group, Dr Ward says these were to be expected in the case of someone using cannabinoids. The  study showed that there was no greater risk of serious adverse events in the marijuana group compared to the control group.  The study found no evidence of harmful effects on cognitive function, or in blood tests among cannabis consumers  but they did report significant improvement in their levels of pain, symptom distress, mood and quality of life compared to control group using other pharmaceuticals to control pain.

The study found virtually no serious adverse effects among those permitted to use marjuana for their pain treatement. Th study used quality controlled medical marijuana with a specific THC level of 12.5%. Dr Ware pointed out that non-medical marijuana has varying rates of THC and the effects are unknown.

The study found virtually no serious adverse effects among those permitted to use marjuana (such as the man shown) for their pain treatement. Th study used quality controlled medical marijuana with a specific THC level of 12.5%. Dr Ware pointed out that non-medical marijuana has varying rates of THC and the effects are unknown.© CBC

However, Dr Ware, does add a qualification to the research findings. “It is important to note the limitations of the study,” he said. “Patients were self-selected, not randomized, and most were experienced users. So what we are seeing is that it appears to be a relatively safe drug when used by people who have already determined that it helps them. We cannot draw conclusions about safety issues of new cannabis users”.

Another qualifier is that the study used quality-controlled marijuana with a reliable 12.5 % THC content, whereas the THC (active ingredient) level in non-medical marijuana can vary widely with unknown effects.

The research concludes, “that the adverse effects of medical cannabis are modest and comparable quantitatively and qualitatively to prescription cannabinoids. The results suggest that cannabis at average doses of 2.5g/d in current cannabis users may be safe as part of carefully monitored pain management program when conventional treatments have been considered medically inappropriate or inadequate.

The study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR).

The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) is a world-renowned biomedical and healthcare research centre. affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine of McGill University, and is the research arm of the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC


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The Secret History of Cannabis in Japan

Today Japan has some of the strictest anti-cannabis laws in the world.

Punishment for possession is a maximum 5 years behind bars and illicit growers face 7-year sentences. Annually around 2000 people fall foul of these laws – their names splashed on the nightly news and their careers ruined forever. The same prohibition which dishes out these punishments also bans research into medical marijuana, forcing Japanese scientists overseas to conduct their studies.

Junichi Takayasu, curator of Taima Hakubutsukan, Japan’s only cannabis museum. (Photo by Hiroko Tanaka)

Junichi Takayasu, curator of Taima Hakubutsukan, Japan’s only cannabis museum. (Photo by Hiroko Tanaka)

For decades, these laws have stood unchallenged. But now increasing numbers of Japanese people are speaking out against prohibition – and at the heart of their campaign is an attempt to teach the public about Japan’s long-forgotten history of cannabis. [1]

Although not updated since 2010, the most detailed English website about cannabis in Japan is at accessible here.

“Most Japanese people see cannabis as a subculture of Japan but they’re wrong. For thousands of years cannabis has been at the very heart of Japanese culture,” explains Junichi Takayasu, one of the country’s leading experts.

According to Takayasu, the earliest traces of cannabis in Japan are seeds and woven fibers discovered in the west of the country dating back to the Jomon Period (10,000 BC – 300 BC). Archaeologists suggest that cannabis fibers were used for clothes – as well as for bow strings and fishing lines. These plants were likely cannabis sativa – prized for its strong fibers – a thesis supported by a Japanese prehistoric cave painting which appears to show a tall spindly plant with cannabis’s tell-tale leaves.

“Cannabis was the most important substance for prehistoric people in Japan. But today many Japanese people have a very negative image of the plant,” says Takayasu.

In order to put Japanese people back in touch with their cannabis roots, in 2001 Takayasu founded Taima Hakubutsukan (The Cannabis Museum) – the only museum in Japan dedicated to the much-maligned weed. [2]

The Cannabis Museum

Junichi Takayasu, curator of Taima Hakubutsukan, stands outside Japan’s only cannabis museum. (Photo by Hiroko Tanaka)

 Junichi Takayasu, curator of Taima Hakubutsukan, stands outside Japan’s only cannabis museum. (Photo by Hiroko Tanaka)

The museum is located in a log cabin 100 miles from Tokyo in Tochigi Prefecture – an area long-associated with Japanese cannabis farming. The prefecture borders the Tohoku region which was devastated by the March 11 2011 earthquake – but being inland from the tsunami and shielded by mountains from radioactive fall-out, it largely escaped the effects of the disaster.

The museum is packed with testimony to Japan’s proud cannabis heritage. There are 17th century woodblock prints of women spinning fibers and photos of farmers cutting plants. In one corner sits a working loom where Takayasu demonstrates the art of weaving. He points to a bail of cannabis cloth – warm in winter, cool in summer, it’s perfectly suited to Japan’s extreme climate.

A woodblock print from the 17th century shows women preparing the fibers from cannabis plants. (Photo by Hiroko Tanaka)

A woodblock print from the 17th century shows women preparing the fibers from cannabis plants. (Photo by Hiroko Tanaka)

Hemp products on display at Taima Hakubutsukan (Photo by Hiroko Tanaka)

Hemp products on display at Taima Hakubutsukan (Photo by Hiroko Tanaka)

“Until the middle of the twentieth century, Japanese cannabis farming used to be a year-round cycle,” explains Takayasu. “The seeds were planted in spring then harvested in the summer. Following this, the stalks were dried then soaked and turned into fiber. Throughout the winter, these were then woven into cloth and made into clothes ready to wear for the next planting season.”

Playing such a key role in agriculture, cannabis often appeared in popular culture. It is mentioned in the 8th century Manyoshu – Japan’s oldest collection of poems and features in many haiku and tanka poems. Ninjas purportedly used cannabis in their training – leaping daily over the fast-growing plants to hone their acrobatic skills.

According to Takayasu, cannabis was so renowned for growing tall and strong that there was a Japanese proverb related to positive peer pressure which stated that even gnarly weeds would straighten if grown among cannabis plants.

Baby clothes decorated with a traditional hemp pattern. (Photo by Hiroko Tanaka)

Baby clothes decorated with a traditional hemp pattern. (Photo by Hiroko Tanaka)

In a similar way, school songs in cannabis growing communities often exhorted pupils to grow as straight and tall as cannabis plants. Due to these perceived qualities, a fabric design called Asa-no-ha based upon interlocking cannabis leaves became popular in the 18th century. The design was a favorite choice for children’s clothes and also became fashionable among merchants hoping for a boom in their economic fortunes.

Accompanying these material uses, cannabis also bore spiritual significance in Shintoism, Japan’s indigenous religion which venerates natural harmony and notions of purity. Cannabis was revered for its cleansing abilities so Shinto priests used to wave bundles of leaves to exorcise evil spirits. Likewise, to signify their purity, brides wore veils made from cannabis on their wedding days. Today, the nation’s most sacred shrine – Ise Jingu in Mie Prefecture – continues to have five annual ceremonies called taima dedicated to the nation’s sun goddess. However many modern visitors fail to connect the names of these rituals with the drug so demonized by their politicians and police. [3]

Early 20th century American historian, George Foot Moore, also recorded how Japanese travelers used to present small offerings of cannabis leaves at roadside shrines to ensure safe journeys. Families, too, burned bunches of cannabis in their doorways to welcome back the spirits of the dead during the summer obon festival.

Was it smoked?

Given this plethora of evidence that cannabis was essential in so many aspects of Japanese life, one question remains in doubt: Was it smoked?

Takayasu isn’t sure – and nor are many other experts. Historical archives make no mention of cannabis smoking in Japan but these records tends to focus primarily on the lifestyles of the elite and ignore the habits of the majority of the population. For hundreds of years, Japanese society used to be stratified into a strict class system. Within this hierarchy, rice – and the sake wine brewed from it – was controlled by the rich so cannabis may well have been the drug of choice for the masses.

Equally as important as whether cannabis was smoked is the question of could it have been? The answer to that is a clear yes. According to a 1973 survey published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, THC levels of indigenous Japanese cannabis plants from Tochigi measured almost 4%. In comparison, one study conducted by the University of Mississippi’s Marijuana Potency Monitoring Project found average THC levels in marijuana seized by U.S. authorities in the 1970s at a much lower 1.5%. [4]

Until the early 20th century, cannabis-based cures were available from Japanese drug stores. Long an ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine, they were taken to relieve muscle aches, pain and insomnia.

Meanwhile the Tohoku region was renowned for wild wariai kinoko (laughing mushrooms). In a country in love with its fungi – think shiitake, maitake and thousand-dollar matsutake – the sale of a range of psychedelic mushrooms was legal until 2002 when they were prohibited to improve the country’s international image prior to the Japan-South Korea World Cup. [5]

Prohibition of cannabis in Japan

The prohibition against the Japanese cannabis industry also has a foreign origin.

According to Takayasu, the 1940s started well for cannabis farmers as the nation’s military leaders – like those in the U.S. – urged farmers to plant cannabis to help win World War Two.

“The Imperial navy needed it for ropes and the air force for parachute cords. The military categorized cannabis as a war material and they created patriotic war slogans about it. There was even a saying that without cannabis, the war couldn’t be waged,” says Takayasu.

However after Japan’s surrender in 1945, U.S. authorities occupied the country and they introduced American attitudes towards cannabis. Having effectively prohibited its cultivation in the States in 1937, Washington now sought to ban it in Japan. With the nation still under U.S. control, it passed the 1948 Cannabis Control Act. The law criminalized possession and unlicensed cultivation – and more than 60 years later, it remains at the core of Japan’s current anti-cannabis policy.

At the time, the U.S. authorities appear to have passed off the Act as an altruistic desire to protect Japanese people from the evils of drugs. But critics point out that occupation authorities allowed the sale of over-the-counter amphetamines to continue until 1951. Instead, several Japanese experts contend that the ban was instigated by U.S. petrochemical lobbyists who wanted to overturn the Japanese cannabis fiber industry and open the market to American-made artificial materials, including nylon.

Workers harvest cannabis at a licensed farm in Tochigi Prefecture. (Photo by Junichi Takayasu).

Workers harvest cannabis at a licensed farm in Tochigi Prefecture. (Photo by Junichi Takayasu).

Takayasu sees the ban in a different light, situating it within the wider context of U.S. attempts to reduce the power of Japanese militarists who had dragged Asia into war.

“In the same way the U.S. authorities discouraged martial arts such as kendo and judo, the 1948 Cannabis Control Act was a way to undermine militarism in Japan. The wartime cannabis industry had been so dominated by the military that the new law was designed to strip away its power.”

Regardless of the true reasons, the impact of the 1948 Cannabis Control Act was devastating. From a peak of more than 25,000 cannabis farms in 1948, the numbers quickly plummeted – forcing farmers out of business and driving the knowledge of cannabis cultivation to the brink of extinction. Today there are fewer than 60 licensed cannabis farms in Japan – all required to grow strains of cannabis containing minimal levels of THC – and only one survivor versed in the full cannabis cycle of seed-to-loom – an 84 year-old woman.

Simultaneously, a sustained propaganda campaign has cleaved the Japanese public from their cannabis cultural roots – brainwashing them into perceiving marijuana as a poison on a par with heroin or crack cocaine.

These campaigns might have stamped out all traces of Japan’s millennia-long history were it not for one factor – the resilience of the cannabis plants themselves. Every summer millions of these bushes – the feral offspring of cannabis legally cultivated before 1948 – pop up in the hills and plains of rural Japan. In 2006, 300 plants even sprouted in the grounds of Abashiri Prison in Hokkaido – much to the embarrassment of the powers-that-be. [6]

Every year, the Japanese police wage well-publicized eradication campaigns against these plants. On average, they discover and destroy between one and two million of them. But like so many other aspects of the drug war, theirs is a losing battle and the next year, the plants grow back in larger numbers than ever.

Waste of resources?

Due to the taboos surrounding discussions of cannabis, many people had been reluctant to condemn these police campaigns. But now critics are beginning to attack both the waste of public resources and the needless destruction of such versatile plants.

Nagayoshi Hideo, author of the 2009 book, _Taima Nyuumon – An Introduction to Cannabisargues for the wild cannabis plants to be systematically harvested and put to use as medicines, biomass energy and in the construction industries.

Yukio Funai – another advocate and author of Akuhou! Taima Torishimarihou no Shinjitsu – Bad Law! The Truth Behind the Cannabis Control Act (2012) – calls cannabis a golden egg for Japan. In a detailed breakdown of the potential economic benefits of legalization, he factors in savings from reduced policing and incarceration – concluding the country could reap as much as 300 billion dollars in the long term.

In a nation facing unprecedented economic problems, it appears these arguments are striking a chord. Recently Japan slipped behind China as the world’s third economic power and the country owes more than ten trillion dollars in debt – double its GDP. These problems contribute to the human toll of an estimated 6.5 million alcoholics and a suicide rate that hovers at around 30,000 a year.

The legalization of cannabis could solve some of these problems. By luring young entrepreneurs back to the land, it could counter agricultural decline – particularly in post-earthquake Tohoku. It might improve the quality of care for thousands of cancer patients and halt the brain drain of scientists forced overseas to research medical cannabis. Legalization would also prevent the annual arrests of 2000 Japanese people – many in their 20s and 30s – whose lives are destroyed by their nation’s illogical and ahistorical laws.

In years to come, Taima Hakubutsukan might be seen as a true beachhead in this struggle.

“People need to learn the truth about the history of cannabis in Japan,” says Takayasu. “The more we learn about the past, the more hints we might be able to get about how to live better in the future. Cannabis can offer Japan a beacon of hope.”

Cannabis: What’s in a name?

Botanists usually divide the cannabis family into three broad categories – tall cannabis sativa, bushy cannabis indica and small cannabis ruderalis. However this simple taxonomy is often frustrated by the interfertility of these three types which allows them to be crossbred into limitless new varieties.

The desired properties of these hybrids tend to determine the name by which they are commonly known.

Marijuana, for example, usually refers to cannabis plants which are grown to be ingested for medical or recreational uses. Cannabis sativa is said to give users a feeling of energetic euphoria and can be prescribed for depression, whereas cannabis indica is apparently more sedating so can be used as a muscle relaxant or to treat chronic pain.

Hemp, is the name often applied to tall plants from the cannabis sativa category which are primarily grown for their strong fibres – but may also contain significant levels of THC.

Most recently, the term industrial hemp has been coined in the U.S. to refer to cannabis plants which have been specially-bred to contain very low levels of THC (less than 1%) in order to conform to current drug laws. Today, many of Japan’s licensed cannabis farms grow a low-THC strain called Tochigi shiro which was first developed in the post-War period.


Uruguay Grants First Licenses to Marijuana Companies

A marijuana home grower works on a marijuana flower in Montevideo in this March 7, 2014.

A marijuana home grower works on a marijuana flower in Montevideo

Retail sales of the plant are slated to begin in June 2016.

Two companies have obtained licenses from the Uruguayan government to cultivate marijuana, the country's National Drug Board said Thursday.

"Twenty-two proposals were presented ... and two licenses for production and distribution were given out," Juan Andres Roballo, head of the National Drug Board, said at a news conference.

Roballo said the move represents a "fundamental step" toward the implementation of Uruguay’s landmark 2013 law legalizing marijuana, which at the time was heavily criticized by proponents of the drugs. Since then, three states in the United States have legalized the retail sale of marijuana.

The two companies, Simbiosis and Icorp, are expected to produce up to 2 tons of marijuana a year.

Marijuana sales in licensed pharmacies across Uruguay will begin in June 2016, with the price expected to be around US$1.20 per gram. According to Augusto Vitale, the president of the Institute for the Regulation and Control of Cannabis (IRCCA), that low price was set with an eye toward undermining the black market.

The measure legalizing marijuana was passed during the administration of left-president Jose Mujica and should have come already come into effect by now. However, current-President Tabare Vazquez, though coming from the same party as Mujica, was skeptical of the policy change back when it was first debated. "Marijuana causes as much damage, or even more, than tobacco," he said in 2012. He seems to have moderated his view, however. In March, he announced he was delaying implementation of the law, with the country’s chief drug regulator saying the purpose was to ensure the program was successful.

Supporters of legalization argue that state control over the production and distribution of marijuana can be an effective strategy to regulate its use and cut profits for drug cartels. The law passed in 2013 requires users to register with the government and limits their consumption to one ounce per month.


50k for medical marijuana treatment

Yvonne Cahalane with her son Tristan and older brother Oscar. Tristan has a rare from of epilepsy and hopes to travel to the US for special treatment involving medical marijuana. Picture: Denis Scannell

An Irish mother has launched an appeal to help her fund specialist medical marijuana treatment in the US for her baby who has a potentially life-threatening condition.

Yvonne Cahalane, from Dunmanway in West Cork, said she needs to raise €35,000 to fund the treatment for her 21-month-son, Tristan, who has a very rare form of epilepsy which triggers severe seizures.

“We missed out on a place on a medical trial in Carolina because he was too young,” Yvonne said.

“But a neurologist in a hospital in Colorado has agreed to take him on. We would like to be there early in the new year, and we are starting him on a new medication soon to stabilise him for travel. We hope that one year in the States will be enough.”

Tristan was diagnosed late last year with Dravet Syndrome — a rare and severe form of epilepsy. He suffers up to 20 seizures a day, with some of the more severe seizures lasting up to an hour.

“It’s very difficult to watch — it’s like a ticking time bomb,” Yvonne said. “It’s fine when the seizures are happening because the adrenalin kicks in and you just do what you need to do to help him. It’s tough though when they’re finished.

“The nighttime seizures are the worst part. Some are quite violent. And it’s the really long seizures — that’s when you worry about the possible long-term damage to him,” she said.

The medication Tristan needs to keep his seizures under control — CBD oil and THCA, both derived from the marijuana plant — is available in the US.

The little boy, who has been nicknamed Mr T because of his brave outlook, has had to learn to walk and talk again as a result of his seizures.

“He is so resilient. Even when he wakes up after a 20-minute seizure, he will sit up, wobbly and disorientated, but he’ll still have this big smile and say ‘hi’.

“These are the little things we fear we’ll lose if we get a really big seizure. We’re very lucky he recovered so well and is receiving physio and speech and language therapy to help. But some days are better some worse. It’s intractable and medications don’t control his seizures for very long. We have gone through most meds at this stage. This won’t get better without help.”

Yvonne appealed on the Neil Prendeville Show on RedFM yesterday for help fundraising to cover their medical costs and living expenses. The medication Tristan needs to keep his seizures under control — CBD oil and THCA, both derived from the marijuana plant — is available in the US.

The oil would be administered orally in drop form as part of a technical and slow process overseen by a neurologist. It would then be absorbed into the receptors in Tristan’s brain in the hope it would control his seizures. The medication could take up to three weeks to kick in.

Yvonne’s husband, John, and their oldest son, Oscar, three, plan to stay in Ireland while Yvonne and Tristan travel to the US.

She called on the Government last night to introduce legislation “sooner rather than later” to allow for the wider prescribing of medicinal cannabis here.

Medical marijuana treatment, similar to that lined up for Tristan, has been trialled successfully in London’s Great Ormond Street, in the Netherlands and France.

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Canadian Feds Threaten Medical Cannabis Crackdown

Vancouver's BC Compassion Club Society and 12 other area cannabis dispensaries are waiting for clarification from Canada's federal government following a threat to call in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)—unless they close their doors. 

John Conroy,  the Compassion Club's attorney, told local News 1130 that he wrote back to Health Canada after they received the threatening letter last month, asking them "to comply with the duty to act fairly that falls upon all administrators when they are going to take action that could adversely affect anyone." 

Vancouver recently became the first Canadian city to regulate medical marijuana dispensaries, which remain officially barred under federal law. The city now has about 80 such operations, with the Compassion Club noted for being the flagship outfit.

Conroy, of the Vancouver-based Cannabis Rights Coalition, fears a replay of the spate of RCMP raids that occurred after the Compassion Club first opened 20 years ago.

"There [were] patients on the news complaining about the police taking away their medicine," he recalled.

As for the latest threat, Conroy also wants specifics on federal claims that the non-profit club is advertising.

"It's a bit puzzling what they have come up with and why they seem to have focused on the ones that are the best, the most compliant," he said.

Conroy has also brought federal litigation challenging Canada's restrictive new medical marijuana regulations. 

In June 2013, Ottawa overturned its Marihuana Medical Access Regulations, revoking the right of patients to grow their own cannabis or to designate a grower. The new system, the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations, mandates that patients purchase mail-order dried cannabis from large-scale operations known as licensed producers.

Conroy's case, Allard v. Her Majesty the Queen, won an injunction, halting the ban on patient cultivation days before the planned switch to the new regulations on April 1, 2014.

But that case—brought on behalf of Neil Allard, a neuro-immune disorder sufferer in Abbotsford, BC—only impacted the 45,000 patients who grew their own cannabis under the former system. This July, the Federal Court of Canada turned down a bid to modify the injunction to overturn other restrictions. Conroy is still waiting on a final decision in the case, which he hopes will overturn the new restrictive regulations altogether. 


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B.C. doctors criticize Canada's strict medical marijuana rules

VANCOUVER - The Canadian Medical Association and the federal government apply a far more rigid standard to prescribing marijuana than other drugs, resulting in negative - or even deadly - consequences, say experts from the B.C. Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS.

Medical marijuana is held to a different standard than other prescription drugs despite research suggesting it has therapeutic benefits, say three experts from the centre in a commentary published Friday in the Journal of the Canadian Public Health Association.

"When it comes to prescription marijuana, patients' needs should be considered above political considerations," Dr. Julio Montaner, one of the authors, said in a news release. "There could be great harm in ignoring the medical uses of marijuana."

"This is just not how we deliver medical care and why we're doing it in the case of cannabis is beyond me," he said.The government and the CMA are being overly cautious, co-author Dr. Thomas Kerr said in an interview.

Several recent studies have shown prescription cannabis can have therapeutic benefits, but the CMA and others have failed to acknowledge the research, resulting in a position that isn't based on evidence, Kerr's commentary said.

Other studies have shown prescribing cannabis may lead to a reduction in overdoses and deaths associated with prescription opioid.

"This can't be taken too lightly because Canada, like the U.S., is in the midst of an epidemic of prescription opioid abuse and related overdose deaths," Kerr said.

While marijuana is not associated with an elevated risk of mortality, prescription opioids contribute to nearly half of all overdose deaths - a leading cause of accident related mortality, the article points out.

Under Canada's current medical marijuana laws, patients must obtain prescription cannabis from federally licensed producers, generally through the mail. There are currently 26 licensed producers listed on Health Canada's website.

The idea of sending prescription drugs through the mail is odd, Kerr said.

"We would never do that in the case of treating someone with diabetes," he said. "Really, people should have access to experts who can counsel them on appropriate dosing, potential side effects and their management and who can also provide other options and clinical followup."

The caution towards cannabis comes because it is illegal and because the federal government "has been making up the science on the fly," Kerr said, pointing to the example of Stephen Harper saying that marijuana is "infinitely worse" than tobacco.

"It's unfortunate that the federal government has really failed to deliver an effective medical-cannabis program and it's unfortunate that they've also misrepresented the science in this area," he said.

Kerr said government and other interested agencies should consider implementing a system where cannabis is legalized, and both medical and recreational use are regulated using evidence-based discussions and approaches.

Kerr is co-director of the B.C. Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS's Urban Health Research Initiative. His co-authors are Montaner, director of the centre, and Stephanie Lake, a research assistant at the centre.


Medical pot growers readying oils, now legal in Canada

A number of Canada’s medical marijuana growers are poised to release cannabis oils for authorized patients who don’t want to smoke or vaporize the dried herb to relieve their symptoms.

In July, Health Canada gave growers the green light to begin producing the plant-based extracts, which are expected to be approved for sale in the coming months.

Tilray announced Monday that it has 20 cannabis extract products awaiting Health Canada approval, including oils in liquid form, gel caps and a topical preparation for certain skin conditions.About a dozen of the country’s 25 medicinal pot producers have sought expanded licences to produce and market cannabis oils and/or fresh marijuana buds and leaves under the updated federal regulations. Among them are Ontario companies Tweed and Bedrocan Canada Inc., and B.C.’s Tilray.

“We really felt it was important to let patients and the general public, physicians and researchers know about these products ahead of time,” Philippe Lucas, the company’s vice-president of research and services, said from Nanaimo, B.C.

“We know there’s going to be a lot of questions about the products, the first time that these kinds of extract products will be legally available in Canada.”

Lucas said some patients and doctors aren’t keen about the idea of having to smoke or vaporize dried marijuana. Cannabis extracts allow the drug to be ingested — and more discreetly.

Patients who have been authorized by their doctors to purchase dried medical marijuana to treat such conditions as chronic pain, multiple sclerosis symptoms or epilepsy will not need a new prescription to access cannabis oils, he said.

“There’s an equivalency factor that we’ve put into these and so there will be an equivalency, for example, of the number of gel caps or the amount of oil you’re allowed to order, based on your daily and monthly limits.

“So any Canadian who’s authorized to use medical cannabis right now would be able to access these,” said Lucas, noting that the oils will be delivered by mail or courier in the same way the dried herb is currently shipped.

Prices for the oil extracts, he said, should not be substantially higher than the $4 to $14 per gram for the dried products.

READ MORE: Medical pot for chronic pain appears safe: study

Bruce Linton, chairman and CEO of the recently merged Bedrocan and Tweed, said the company initially plans to release two or three cannabis oil products, which could be scaled up to 10 or more, depending on patient demand.

“There are different types of oils,” Linton said from the Tweed plant in Smiths Falls, Ont., southwest of Ottawa. “The combination of ingredients is expected to have a similar effect in its oil form as it does in its flower form.”

For instance, an oil could include a combination of marijuana strains, while another could be a purified single strain with a specific effect, such as helping a person with chronic pain to sleep.

“So each of the venues has their own distinct strains, which have their own distinct applications and will become their own distinct oils,” he said of the Bedrocan and Tweed growing facilities.

As well, some oils produced by the various growers will have different concentrations of the weed’s main medicinal ingredients: THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the psychoactive agent that provides marijuana’s high, and non-psychoactive CBD (cannabidiol), which is being used by some patients to control seizures.

Lucas of Tilray said some parents have been going through the laborious process of making their own cannabis oil from dried marijuana to give to their children with epilepsy or other seizure disorders that are resistant to or poorly controlled by standard pharmaceuticals. Typically these oils come from strains high in CBD.

Jennifer Ayotte of Oshawa, Ont., said having cannabis in oil form would be a major benefit in treating her 23-year-old daughter Stephanie, who suffers intractable seizures from Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Currently Ayotte makes brownies containing dried marijuana that her daughter can eat. One brownie can be divided into many small portions and ingested throughout the day to control her seizures.

The medicinal pot has made a big difference for Stephanie, who had been having up to a dozen seizures a day and had fallen down stairs and broken her leg as a result.

Traditional anticonvulsive drugs either didn’t work or provided little improvement, and they also had side-effects “that were just awful,” said Ayotte, explaining that some made her daughter so psychotic that she tried to jump out of the car on Highway 401 and kicked in one of the vehicle’s doors.

While ingesting marijuana has reduced Stephanie’s seizures by at least 90 per cent, the high sugar content needed to make them even remotely palatable has led to unwanted weight gain in her daughter, who also has severe cognitive impairment.

“So having an oral would be tremendous,” her mother said.

“Certainly for us and for other people who are caring for her, it will make it a lot easier. So when she is out or we’re in a restaurant and she needs to have it, instead of having a brownie, it can be put into the food that she’s eating.”

A Health Canada spokesman said once a grower has received a supplemental licence to produce cannabis oils, the company is permitted to get production up and running, but is not yet allowed to sell the products.

“Health Canada officials will conduct a formal inspection of their facility to determine if the licensed producer meets the requirements for sale,” Sean Upton said by email.

“When all requirements are met, including analytical testing to ensure compliance with the conditions of the supplemental licence and the requirements for good production practices under the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulation, Health Canada will amend the supplemental licence to include the activity of sale.”


More people using pot as substitute for pills and booze

 A new study by the University of British Columbia and University of Victoria suggest that more people are using marijuana as a substitute for prescription drugs and alcohol because it’s less addictive.

According to the authors of the study, it is the largest survey of medical cannabis patients to date and highlights its potential health benefits.

One of the authors is UBC Okanagan Associate Professor Zach Walsh, who says a majority of medical marijuana users are using pot as a substitute for pills.

“We need to compare the risks and benefits of using other substances, such as opiates or alcohol, to the risks and benefits of cannabis use to estimate the real public health consequences of cannabis use,” says Walsh. “Looking at cannabis use in isolation paints an incomplete picture.”“Our study shows that more than 80 per cent of medicinal cannabis users reported substituting cannabis for prescription drugs including opiate pain killers,” says Walsh.

The study also reveals that drinkers are putting down the bottle and picking up a joint instead.

More than half of the study’s 470 respondents reported substituting alcohol with cannabis, while a third of respondents prefer using cannabis instead of hard drugs like cocaine and crystal meth.

The authors say the study’s findings demystify the notion that marijuana is a gateway drug.

“While cannabis use can certainly be problematic for some individuals, these findings highlight the potential of cannabis to be an ‘exit drug’ to addiction rather than a gateway drug,” says Lucas, VP of Patient Research and Services for Tilray, and the lead author of the publication.

It concludes that it’s time to re-examine Canada’s laws and discuss the potential costs and benefits of creating legal access to cannabis outside of the medical system.

“If you want to make informed choices about pain control, I think use of cannabis is a right that every Canadian should have,” says Walsh. “It’s been proven to be much less harmful and addictive than opiates or substances like alcohol.”


Is Cannabis Tourism a Cause for Concern?

As more and more places legalize and regulate cannabis, the wider implications of bringing the trade above ground have inevitably attracted scrutiny. A growth in tourism related to the drug is one such implication, and it's dividing opinion.

A Native American tribe in South Dakota, for example, has just announced its intention to legalize cannabis on tribal land (a right that the federal government has decided to grant to all Native American tribes), and its main motivation for doing so is to draw in cannabis consumers from all over the state, to generate extra revenue for those who live on the reservation.


In other jurisdictions, however, an influx of such visitors is more often seen as a cause for concern. The worry is that cannabis tourism means legions of cannabis users from "elsewhere" descending on a newly legalized market, bringing an array of social problems with them. But this concern overlooks some critical facts.

First, the outcome of cannabis policy reform depends entirely on the regulatory rules set by government. In Uruguay, where plans to legally regulate cannabis were approved in 2013, proactive steps are being taken to prevent the possibility of cannabis tourism. According to Julio Calzada, Secretary-General for the Uruguayan National Assembly on Drugs, "the objective of regulating the purchase of marijuana to residents is to minimize, to the highest degree possible, the potential for Uruguay to become a 'marketplace' for cannabis."

In 2012, the Netherlands attempted to prevent cannabis tourism by allowing only residents to purchase cannabis and requiring all "coffee shops" that sell cannabis to operate solely on a membership basis. According to Dr. Jean-Paul Grund, senior researcher at the CVO-Addiction Research Centre in Utrecht, the stricter regulations quickly led to an increase in illegal market sales.

"Due to privacy concerns associated with showing documentation or registering for membership at a coffee shop," Grund says, "residents switched from buying their cannabis at coffee shops to buying it in the illegal market." This undermined the overarching premise of Dutch cannabis policy: to separate cannabis from the market for "harder drugs."

Although some Dutch border cities (who saw the biggest influx of cannabis tourists) were in favor, other municipalities saw the new controls as an unnecessary imposition. The policy was therefore modified to allow, but not require, cities to impose residents-only restrictions, thereby letting jurisdictions pick the best system for their local context.

Such regulatory considerations aside, it's worth questioning the notion that cannabis tourism is inherently undesirable. For the roughly one in three visitors to Amsterdam that visit a coffee shop, it is not access to cannabis per se that is the attraction, as they have access to the drug at home. Instead, the crucial factor is the novelty of the coffee shops themselves. A comparison can be made with similar forms of legal drug tourism, such as tours of Amsterdam's Heineken beer factory. Here again, it is not the drug itself that is the primary draw, but the cultural environment. Indeed, tourist boards routinely promote cities on the basis of their drinking establishments.

The question, then, is: What are the costs and benefits of cannabis tourism?

recent review of the scientific evidence undertaken by the International Centre for Science in Drug Policy found little evidence to suggest that cannabis tourism has caused widespread negative health or social outcomes.

The main cost is the potential for social nuisance. However, Grund points out the apparent double standard. "Double parking, littering, sitting on private doorsteps, these are legitimate concerns, but we don't hear much about these for other types of commerce." In Amsterdam, most problems are largely confined to a relatively contained and manageable area in and around the city's red light district. And in fact, it is usually alcohol rather than cannabis consumption that is the main source of public disorder.

The obvious benefit from such tourism is increased revenue for cannabis coffee shops, hotels, shops, restaurants, and other businesses in the local tourist economy. And of course, there's the tax revenue, which goes to local and national government.

But for Steve Fox, co-author of the Colorado ballot initiative that legalized and regulated recreational cannabis, the primary benefit of encouraging cannabis tourism isn't the lucrative revenues. "Given that the harms associated with cannabis use are lower than that associated with alcohol, there is a public health benefit to building a society where cannabis is an acceptable alternative to alcohol," said Fox.

In fact, he's working on another ballot initiative that will allow cannabis tourism to flourish in Denver. Expected to be voted on this year, the ballot initiative will legalize public consumption of non-smokable forms of cannabis in establishments restricted to adults 21 years of age or older that choose to allow it.

It's time to shift the focus away from blanket opposition to legalization based on fears that it will lead to an influx of troublemakers intent on getting high. A regulated market would give policymakers the tools to combat -- or encourage -- cannabis tourism, as they see fit. The alternative is to allow organized criminals to continue managing the trade.


Changing of the guard in Ottawa could speed up cannabis industry growth

TORONTO — Medical marijuana producers are bracing for the possibility that Canadians could elect a new government this fall — a change that could accelerate the already breakneck pace of growth in the burgeoning industry and usher in new players such as tobacco companies and pharmacy chains.

“This whole election’s very interesting,” said Bruce Linton, the CEO and chairman of Tweed Marijuana Inc. “When you have a business that has the potential to see quite a lot of acceleration because of outcomes, you watch it more carefully.”

Marijuana became a hot-button issue in the election campaign on Thursday, when Joy Davies, a Liberal candidate in British Columbia, pulled out of the race because of posts she had made on Facebook about marijuana.

Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau distanced himself from Davies when asked about her posts, which included claims that marijuana can cure skin cancer and a link to an academic study suggesting pot decreases domestic violence.

Trudeau has long promised to legalize and regulate marijuana if elected, while NDP leader Tom Mulcair has said his party would decriminalize the drug immediately upon forming government.

Khurram Malik, an analyst at Jacob Securities, says the election of either the Liberals or the NDP could lead to less red tape for licensed medical marijuana producers.

“We have the most anti-weed party in power right now,” Malik said. “Any other party that wins is a lot more friendly to marijuana than this one, so things will get done a little more efficiently and openly, so people can actually plan their businesses in a more reasonable and logical manner.”

The introduction of a recreational marijuana program could bring new players such as tobacco and liquor companies into the market, Malik added. Currently the industry is too small for the giants to bother with, he said.

“Big tobacco never comes in and starts from scratch,” said Malik. “They always buy something, and then build it into something bigger.”

Michael Haines, the CEO of Mettrum Health Corp., says the creation of a recreational program — similar to those that exist in Colorado and Washington state in the U.S. — could create a dual system. While the medical program would likely continue to be federally regulated, recreational programs may be regulated at the provincial level, similar to alcohol.

However, a recreational marijuana program — similar to those that exist in Colorado and Washington state in the U.S. — would take at least a year or two to implement, said Malik.

“It’s a complicated program to set up, and then they’ve got to figure out how to capture taxes from it, which is not an easy thing to do.”

A changing of the guard in Ottawa could also result in new distribution rules. Currently, federal rules only allow licensed cannabis producers to distribute product to customers via mail — a process that can be confusing for patients, who are more accustomed to picking up their drugs in person at pharmacies.

Adding to the confusion is the proliferation of medical marijuana dispensaries in some parts of the country.

Some local authorities have turned a blind eye to the dispensaries and the City of Vancouver has moved to license them, providing some legitimacy to the shops. But Health Canada has called the dispensaries illegal and threatened an RCMP crackdown if they don’t close up shop.

“Before any government would want to look at any potential changes, that’s one of the issues they would need to address before moving forward,” said Greg Engel, the chief executive of B.C.-based Tilray.

Haines says he isn’t holding his breath waiting for the end of the marijuana prohibition era.

“We didn’t get into this business hoping that it turns into a recreational market,” said Haines, noting that Mettrum already has a “thriving business” within the medical sphere.

“That said, if that were to ever happen, we would be exceptionally well-positioned,” he added.


FBI Rethinks Its Policy on Cannabis


In an effort for the Federal Bureau of Investigation to continue recruiting young people to work in their cyber crime division, the agency is being forced to unofficially relax its policies when it comes to the past experiences of some candidates with marijuana.

As it stands, the FBI will not consider hiring any person who reveals a history of cannabis use within the past three years. However, in order for the agency to successfully launch a new pilot program, which is being used to train high school age hackers to run security against cyber criminals, the FBI is reportedly sometimes turning a blind eye to the past cannabis consumption of talented cadets.

Earlier this week, during a segment on CNBC News, special agent Scott Smith with the agency’s headquarters in Pittsburgh said the “FBI is always evolving” in regards to it policy against the use of cannabis. Although the tone of the interview did not suggest that the FBI was prepared to eliminate cannabis from its drug-free criteria, Smith did imply that the agency is fully aware that it will soon have to tackle the issue in order to continue recruiting new blood.

Last year, FBI Director James Comey told The Wall Street Journal that it’s no-tolerance stance against marijuana was causing the agency to lose some of its best cyber crime recruits.

“I have to hire a great work force to compete with those cyber criminals, and some of those kids want to smoke weed on the way to the interview,” he said.

report on the future of the FBI’s cyber crime initiative published earlier this year by the Office of the Inspector General, found that “the FBI loses a significant number of people who may be interested because of the FBI’s extensive background check process and other requirements, such as all employees must be United States citizens and must not have used marijuana in the past 3 years, and cannot have used any other illegal drug in the past 10 years.”

The inevitable change in the FBI’s drug policy is almost certain to come within the next few years, as more states move to legalize the recreational use of cannabis.

Do you think the FBI should relax its stance on cannabis use for potential employees in this new cultural and political climate? Share your opinion below.


Israel Has Potential to Become Global Cannabis Superpower



At first glance, Israel may not seem to be a country with the most potential in cultivating a powerful cannabis industry. With strict religious laws and guidelines that govern the country, it would be easy to believe that marijuana is the last thing on the Israeli government’s’ minds.

But, in fact, Israel is to thank for much of the cannabis research that already exists. For example, it was a pair of Israeli scientistsRaphael Mechoulam and Yechiel Goan, who first isolated the chemical compound tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, back in 1964. Without this groundbreaking discovery, much of what we know about cannabis would never have existed.

Now, with a number of new startups appearing throughout the country, many of which are branching overseas to do business with other countries, Israel is now on the fast track to becoming a global superpower in the cannabis industry.

One of the main aspects of Israel that is allowing them to make such great strides in the field of medical cannabis is their ability to conduct clinical testing on different strains of cannabis with far less hassle or legislative red tape than many other countries. Because of this, cannabis startup companies throughout the world have begun to partner with Israeli businesses in order to further along their own research at a faster pace.

“Israeli growers have agreements with companies in USA, Canada, Czech Republic and Australia. Israel has the oldest and largest regulated medical cannabis program in the world with over 22,000 registered patients. The Hebrew University holds a rich IP bank of cannabis patents. It is easier to conduct cannabis research and clinical studies in Israel than in any other country in the world,” said Saul Kaye, the founder of iCan and CannaTech.

While it is still illegal to transport marijuana across country borders due to the 1961 Single Convention of Narcotic Drugs put forth by the UN, Israel has found a loophole that allows them to clinically test cannabis for businesses in other countries. Israel’s Medical Cannabis Unit of the Ministry of Health transformed themselves into a national narcotics agency that oversees all use and transportation of narcotics throughout the country. By personally regulating and overseeing all of the cannabis related operations, Israel is able to circumnavigate the UN’s ruling in order to bring cannabis in for testing purposes.

Dr. Tamir Gedo, the CEO of Breath of Life, a manufacturer of active pharmaceutical ingredients that can be utilized to conduct clinical trials for medicinal purposes, explains that “Israel is playing a large role in clinical trials and foreign governments and multinationals come to Israel for this purpose. In the US, the DEA does not allow for the transportation of raw materials. A company in New York cannot import enough raw cannabis to conduct the clinical trials.”

Not only does Israel have the ability to test their products with greater ease than the United States or Canada, but the naturally warm climate creates a perfect condition for the plant to be grown in large quantities. Additionally, thanks to the highly agricultural society that Israel houses, growers already possess the know-how and skills to cultivate the crop and ensure it is the highest quality possible for medicinal uses.

For example, Doron Havkin, chairman for the Israel Loss Adjusters Association, claims that it would be foolish for Israel not to utilize cannabis as a cash crop. He explains that in an agricultural sector in Arava, there is nearly 6,000 acres available for growing cannabis.

Israel is already teeming with new companies that are adding to the potential and growing immensity of the cannabis industry every day. For example, a company called BreedIt is using these advanced farming techniques to develop agro-breeding technologies to companies around the world. These new technologies would give growers everywhere an advantage in the industry, allowing them to produce high quality crops in large numbers.

Another Israeli cannabis company based out of Tel Aviv called Syque Medical has developed the world’s first dose-controlled medical marijuana inhaler. The small device can quickly and easily allow a patient to take the exact prescribed dose of medical marijuana simply by breathing in the preloaded cartridge. The device also takes different forms of cannabis, allowing for the patient to choose what works best for them and their ailments.

But, Israel is not here just to provide the rest of the world with technologies and clinical tests that the rest of the world have difficulty accessing. The country is also looking to use the medicinal effects of cannabis for its own ailing citizens.

Cannabics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has recently partnered with Bazalet Pharma to produce medical cannabis capsules that are now available to all medical cannabis patients in the country. The capsules come in three different dosage amounts: the Hermon-SR variety with 10mg of THC, the Gilboa-SR containing 9.5mg of THC, and a 0.5mg CBD variety for those who prefer not to experience the iconic “high” brought on by THC.

The company has also announced that they will be making another of their medical cannabis capsules, called WanaCaps XR, available throughout Colorado through a partnership with Boulder’s Wana Edibles.

While Israel has multitudes of potential to break through as a global cannabis superpower, it is important to remember that Israel also has the potential to make a large profit through these practices. Echoing the ideas of Havkin, Oren Leibovitz, the editor for the Israeli website,“Cannabis”, and chairman for the Green Leaf party, a political movement for the legalization of marijuana for the country, Israel has the potential to make more money than ever if they fully enter the global cannabis industry.

“In the next few months, the exporting of medical cannabis might be approved by the Knesset [Israeli parliament], which will make cannabis the country’s #1 export, superseding weaponry and, potentially, natural gas,” Leibovitz said.


Michigan Panel Votes 4-2 In Support Of Cannabis Use For Children With Autism, LARA Director Denies Petition

Mike Zimmer, the Director of LARA in Michigan, has taken the futures of children and their families into his hands, only to crush them, insult them, and put all of their lives in danger. I was in attendance on July 31st2015 at the last autism hearing in Lansing when the panel was finally given the chance to make an informed vote of 4-2 in favor of Autism being added to the list of qualifying conditions for medical marijuana.

I held our 4-year-old son Emery affectionately in my arms as I spoke in front of the panel of our experience over the last year and how it has changed us. We are able to give Emery cannabis because of his epilepsy diagnosis. I explained what it has done to reverse his autism impairment, to help him grow and to be happy, and for us to be able to live together in the same home. Before cannabis, we were going to have to live in separate homes on the same farmland together. Emery could not help but attack everyone around him constantly, including his younger siblings. Now, we happily spend entire days together and can hardly imagine the road we were headed down before Emery’s brain was allowed to work the way it is meant to because of cannabis.


We were at the hearing with other friends as well. These friends have been fighting this for over two years. They are parents, family, friends, attorneys, doctors, experts, and other activists. Parents with adult autistic children spoke to the panel as well. These parents have spent decades watching their children suffer as they refill endless bottles of dangerous pharmaceutical medications. They explained that from all of their research and everything they have seen, they believe that cannabis will work. They want to try it. Parents like Dwight Zahringer have seen that other children using cannabis are not only experiencing changes in behavior and sleep patterns, but are also becoming verbal for the first time. Like every parent, these are things that he wants deeply for his own son, who is mostly non-verbal at the age of three. The original petitioner Lisa Smith’s son Noah, who has been non-verbal his whole life, has just recently started talking at the age of six because of cannabis. Parents caring for children with an autism diagnosis shouldn’t have to wait another day to try a proven safe and effective medicine that is non-toxic and has never caused a death. This is especially true when it’s helping so many people already.

Mike Zimmer denied the petition despite the panel’s recommendation to add it to the qualifying list of conditions.

The panel is specifically designated by LARA to make the decisions regarding new conditions that should qualify for protection under the MMMA. They reviewed over seventy-five peer-reviewed articles with over eight hundred pages of scientific information relating to the paediatric use of cannabis for autism. Parents should be able to choose this medicine for their autistic children. Adults who are suffering should be able to qualify as well. But instead of passing this decision through so that families can finally find relief, healing, and new positive experiences, Mike Zimmer denied it. From the decision:

“This lack of scientific evidence is concerning … the petition fails to acknowledge the direct impact on children… .”

And Lt. Governor Brian Calley, who has an autistic child of his own, weighed in by saying “there are neither sufficient studies nor scientific trials demonstrating its clinical impact to justify approval at this time.”

Maybe what these guys need is over eight hundred pages of information on the dangers of using anti-psychotics, anti-depressants, anti-insomnia, and anti-anxiety medications on children just to help them cope or to control dangerous behaviors.

Mike Zimmer image

Zimmer writes that children with autism “without associated seizure disorders” are already eligible under the language of the MMMA. He implies that if there are no seizures, then the autism is not severe, with no clear definition for what severe autism is.

Let’s help him with that: autism is a word with six letters. That’s it. But children with an autism diagnosis, whether it is considered severe or not, have to see doctors to get that diagnosis. And there are reasons for seeing the doctors. Parents can’t just walk into a dispensary and get an autism diagnosis and a medical card. Children with these conditions have a neurologist and sometimes many other doctors that they see regularly to monitor their growth, behaviors, and intelligence. It feels like what Mike Zimmer is really saying is that he doesn’t trust the many compassionate doctors, attorneys, parents, experts, social workers and other professionals who work in this field. These are the people who spend time with autistic children and their families. They support this petition. Yet, he feels he has the right to make this decision for all of us.

He does not have that right.

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He does not have the right to put a time limit on the lives of people or to force parents to separate siblings from each other when they can grow up together as friends, happily and peacefully. He doesn’t have the right to choose the number of children that are allowed to thrive and succeed in this world. In his Final Determination letter, he even makes it a point to rebut the claims that adding autism would cause a minimal increase in participation among minors.


Attorney Michael Komorn suggests:

This guy is the head of LARA, the agency that licenses these physicians, and he relies upon the argument that the doctors that we license can’t be trusted and will abuse the system. To follow his logic, his licensed physicians will treat autistic patients who they are not qualified to treat … The solution is that he can regulate this through the physicians and lay down rules and regulations. Instead he shuts it down.

None of this matters, of course. Every child with an autism diagnosis will benefit from using cannabis. This is clearly outlined in all of the peer-reviewed information that was included with the petition even aside from the hundreds, if not thousands, of miraculous stories from all across the country. These are stories of autism impairment being reversed, sometimes seemingly overnight, just from using low doses of cannabis oil or other forms of cannabis. Let’s make sure these people have all the information they need to make this right for us!


Studies Show Cannabis Relieves Symptoms Of Parkinson’s Disease



Observational studies show cannabis relieves motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

Studies focused on cannabinoid-based treatments for Parkinson’s disease have been conducted since the seventies, due to the important number of patients suffering from the illness reporting an improvement of their symptoms following the consumption of cannabis.

Motor symptoms

Motor symptoms have been at the centre of these studies, as they constitute the most visible and most debilitating disorders in relation with Parkinson’s disease.
As early as the eighties, cannabinoids have been shown to alleviate dystonia, dyskinesia, and akinesia, all of them motor symptoms which have been known to impact certain Parkinson’s patients. For instance, controlled doses of synthetic cannabinoids have been able to reduce dyskinesia in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease or Parkinsonism for years by 30%. Incidentally, medicinal cannabis as well as cannabis extracts-based medications are already being used to treat general spasticity in the context of other conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome.


Research focusing on the degeneration of brain cells and its resulting impact on cognitive capacities – which is the origin of the aforementioned motor symptoms – has also been relatively active, with a few breakthrough studies published during the previous decade. The neuroprotective properties of cannabinoids had already been proven on many occasions, and the impact it could have on Parkinson’s disease was confirmed as well . In 2004, a research laboratory injected rats with an agonist of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of the major psychoactive substances of cannabis, followed by the injection of a toxin triggering an animal version of Parkinson’s. Upon testing of these rats in parallel with a control group of healthy subjects, researchers observed that their brains were virtually indistinguishable. In a second series of tests, other rats were this time first injected with the toxin, then with the THC agonist, with positive results as well, especially when THC was combined with Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid known for its medicinal properties. In human terms, the second test suggested that cannabinoids intake could slow down the progression of the disease for several years.

Recent advances

Despite numerous studies underlining the multiple benefits of cannabis on Parkinson’s, no palliative or curative treatment has been developed, partly due to the lack of availability of medicinal cannabis dedicated to research. This is why the aforementioned studies have so far been considered with relative caution, especially since it was observed that an excessive dose of cannabis could reverse its own effects and temporarily worsen some of the motor symptoms. These results were however partly linked to the relative inefficacy of clinical tests conducted with synthetic cannabinoids, as well as the lack of familiarity of the subjects tested with medicinal marijuana or cannabis extracts-based medication.

In order to bypass the legal restriction of cannabis being illegal in most countries these last two years, many observational studies were published, focusing on patients already self-medicating with cannabis. The tests measured their reaction to a “dose” of medicinal cannabis, once again with positive outcomes in regards to motor symptoms as well as non-motor symptoms.  Patients participating to the study reported that a “dose” of cannabis could relieve them for a period of 2 to 3 hours.

Medical Cannabis Farm

Medical Cannabis Nursery

Finally, in March 2014, researchers from Tel-Aviv managed to show results for 22 patients suffering from Parkinson’s Disease, whose symptoms, both motor and non-motor, were relieved following the use of cannabis. The medical team registered important fluctuations in pain, sleep, and several motor symptoms, namely tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. In addition to these results being the first study showing cannabis relieving motor and non-motor symptoms alike, no adverse effects were observed following the intake of cannabis. It is likely that these recent advances will trigger a newfound enthusiasm from the medical community to pursue research in this direction, especially since large amounts of medicinal cannabis have been unlocked for research in the United States.


The #Fight #For My #Life – The #Cannabis and #Linda #Morado #Story


In August 2014, Linda Morado received the most devastating news of her life – a diagnosis of Stage IV kidney cancer. It had metastasized to her lungs in two places. The month prior, Linda had also been diagnosed with celiac disease and nutrient malabsorption issues. Despite these overwhelming challenges, Linda was determined to live.

With eight years of experience in the United States Army, she intimately understands the value of a fighting spirit. She also has a large family to take care of, including five children, fifteen grandchildren, and two great grandchildren. Thankfully, through the power of cannabis extract medicine and unwavering spiritual belief, Linda is now cancer free.

Linda was given 10 months to live by her doctors. She underwent a surgery in an effort to extend her life, which included removal of her right adrenal gland and drainage of fluid in her right lung. After working through a number of emotions, Linda decided to use cannabis extract therapy.

The first oil she acquired was weak, which she discovered after four weeks of ineffectiveness led her to have a lab test conducted on it. It tested at 46% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The next batch was far stronger, testing at 85% THC, and caused her to sleep for most of the initial four or five days of treatment. Within a couple months, Linda’s energy and weight substantially improved, indicating the oil had positively impacted her celiac condition.

From death bed to playing with her children, Linda Morado is now cancer free.


A December 18, 2014 oncologist appointment revealed the lung cancer had disappeared, which surprised the doctor. He told Linda to continue doing what she was doing. By January, the cancer was completely gone.

There are strong scientific studies behind all this. A study published in the Journal Molecular Cancer determined that cannabinoids may inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce cancer cell apoptosis. Basically, the cancer cell commits suicide!

Thanks to the natural healing path Linda took, she can now continue supporting her family. She announced her recovery on a January 15, 2015 Facebook post:

“I AM CANCER FREE!!! Stage 4 cancer and given a death sentence to cancer free in just a couple months!!!!! Hip Hip HORRAYYYYYYY.” -Linda Morado

It is a tragedy that lab-tested cannabis extracts are not more readily available, as then Linda could have avoided the initial setback she experienced. As stories like hers become better known, the demand for safe access will become overwhelming and eventually result in reform.

UPDATE: A May 11, 2015 PET Scan confirmed Linda is still cancer free. She is also now ready to go back to work.


Marijuana May Help Organ Transplant Patients By Delaying Rejection

Marijuana might bring about a revolution in the field of organ transplantation by delaying the rejection of incompatible organ. Pictured, a budtender displays various types of marijuana available to customers.


As the battle against the legalization of medical marijuana continues, a number of reasons have been put forward that actually explains the medical benefits associated with pot. Adding to the list of benefits, a latest study suggests that, Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, an active ingredient found in marijuana, can help delay rejection of incompatible organs in transplantation patients.

A team of researchers from the University of South Carolina School of Medicine found that THC successfully delayed the organ rejection in a group of mice. For the study, the researchers took two groups of genetically different mice. Skin graft from one group of mice was grafted on to another and vice versa.

While the first group was treated with placebo, the second group was exposed to THC. What researchers observed was strange and surprising at the same time.

"We are excited to demonstrate for the first time that cannabinoid receptors play an important role in the prolongation of rejection of a foreign graft by suppressing immune response in the recipient, said study co-author Mitzi Nagarkatti. "This opens up a new area of research that would lead to better approaches to prevent transplant rejection as well as to treat other inflammatory diseases."

Even though the study results seem promising, the researchers are not sure about the molecular pathways involved in the mechanism by which the delay in organ rejection takes place. The researchers further say that a lot of research is being carried out to identify the benefits of each and every ingredient contained in marijuana, however, the most fascinating challenge is to identify the molecular pathways involved.

In addition, the researchers have warned people not to use marijuana as a therapy without consulting a physician. Marijuana usage for medical purposes is subject to the federal, local and state laws.

The complete details of the study have been published in the September 2015 issue of The Journal of Leukocyte Biology.



The days of cannabis consumers being relegated to dropping flowers into glass bowls and rolling joints for smoking are long gone. While this option is certainly still available to fans of the culture, today’s fans of the culture are focusing onvaporizing concentrates, which are special extractions that strive to isolate the plant’s resin-bearing trichomes from the leaf matter and other undesirable matter. The trichomes contain all cannabinoids and terpenes and, thus, are the essence of the plant, providing all medical and recreational (psychoactive) value.

Concentrates are created through a process called extraction. Extraction is simply the removal of the resin from the buds and leaf matter. The more effectively that as much resin as possible can be extracted — while discarding all non-resin matter, such as parts of the leaves and bud (like the calyx and pistils) — the higher the purity, quality, and medical efficacy of the concentrate.

Efficient, Healthy Alternative

Of course, those who refuse to recognize the medical efficacy of cannabis — such as the federal government and many conservative organizations — are opposed to concentrates based on their perception that they are even more “dangerous” than smoking marijuana. For those who are offended by the euphoria delivered by cannabis, concentrates are public enemy number one and labeled as a detriment to society.

For patients and recreational consumers, however, concentrates are actually a healthy alternative. Despite fear mongering and pervasive ignorance, by eliminating plant matter from the equation, consumers find themselves smoking or vaporizing a more pure substance that is mostly the resin from cannabinoid-loaded trichomes. While cannabis flowers, or buds, typically contain between 10-20 percent THC (getting as potent as about 30 percent, in rare cases), concentrates can offer between 60-95 percent THC, making for a much more efficient and productive vaping or smoking session, something that is especially important for patients.

Cannabis Oil

Cannabis oil, which has gained plenty of media attention recently for its role in helping epilepsy and cancer patients, especially children, is not a particular extraction method or product. In fact, cannabis oil can be created via a variety of extraction methods, all of which produce concentrate products of varying levels of quality and potency. Of course, one must remember the old computer industry mantra: Garbage In, Garbage Out. If one uses poor-quality, weak cannabis to create a concentrate, the result will never be as good as when leveraging a top-shelf medical strain with a high percentage of THCCBD, or both.

concentrates dabbing (1)


Common extraction methods involve solvents, including butane, CO2, ethanol (grain alcohol), isopropyl alcohol, and propane. Solvents are chemical agents that strip the resin from the plant and leaf matter, collecting and concentrating the cannabinoids and terpenes.

Some extraction methods, especially those involving butane, leave residual solvents in the final product — even if only in trace amounts. This is a health concern and may impact the flavor and aroma of the concentrate.

Depending on the solvent and process employed, concentrates are available in a wide variety of consistencies. Some are gooey, thick oils, while others result in a rigid, hard material (such as shatter). Experience, or the consultation of a dabbing expert, is necessary to determine a preference for which consistency is most pleasing. It is recommended that users experiment with different types of concentrates from various dispensaries and vendors to learn their preference.

What is Dabbing?

Dabbing involves the application of a small amount of a cannabis concentrate to a heated surface, which vaporizes the substance, creating a dense, white vapor that is inhaled. Because it doesn’t involve actual combustion, dabbing is considered a harm reduction strategy that is safer and healthier than smoking.

Dabbing basically combines the act of vaporizing cannabis, which can be achieved with a conventional desktop or pocket vaporizer, with the world of concentrates. Despite its recreational roots and youthful culture, dabbing is an effective route of ingesting cannabis medicine because of potency, quick onset, and minimal consumption. A small amount of a strong concentrate, when vaporized via dabbing, may be equivalent to smoking a joint of mid-shelf herb and spending a considerably greater amount of time medicating.

concentrates dabs

Dab Rigs

Because dabbing necessarily involves vaporizing one’s concentrate, conventional bongs and pipes that accommodate cannabis buds and are designed for smoking them aren’t appropriate for concentrates. Thus the emergence and popularity of specialized glass bongs for consuming concentrates like shatter, wax, and live resin called dab rigs.

The heating surface used in dab rigs are constructed from a variety of materials, including titanium and quartz. These substances are employed because they can achieve and sustain the high temperatures necessary for effective and thorough vaporization of the concentrate. While titanium is impervious to breaking if dropped, it’s the most expensive way to outfit a dab rig. Quartz, however, which is considerably less expensive, can also easily break.

Skillets, Nails, and Bangers

Three of the most common forms of dab rigs are skillets, nails, and bangers. Skillets, the oldest and least popular of the three, involve a pad that is heated with a torch or other device. After it achieves a high enough temperature, a very small sample of concentrate (about one-third the size of a pea) is placed on the pad, at which time the user inhales the vapor using a plastic or glass straw. The timing of this process is critical to avoid the loss of the cannabinoid- and terpene-rich vapor that’s created at the instant that the concentrate touches the skillet.


Nails, which were the norm a few years ago when dabbing was gaining popularity, are more sophisticated and convenient than skillets. They are typically titanium, glass, or quartz and designed to slip into the downtube of a bong-like dab rig, replacing what would traditionally be the herb bowl. Like skillets, nails require a heat source, such as a torch. While considered superior to skillets by many users, nails have waned in popularity, having been replaced by today’s most popular dabbing surface, the banger.

Despite its swanky name, a banger is simply a titanium, glass, ceramic, or quartz bowl. Common sizes for bangers are 10, 14, and 18 mm. Available in a wide variety of form factors and sizes, bangers are arguably the most convenient and attractive of the dab rig “input devices.”

Some dab rigs involving nails employ coiled electronic heating elements callede-nails. Many consumers prefer e-nails due to their ease-of-use and the decreased danger of catching one’s cat on fire. E-nails also prevent overheating one’s concentrate, a common problem that will decrease the quality of one’s dabbing experience.

Dab rigs also require dabbing utensils, appropriately called “dabbers.” While one has the option of purchasing expensive and exotic utensils, many dabbing fans use something as simple as a crochet hook or dental probe to get the job done. For the dab rig itself, borosilicate glass is highly recommended due to its ability to expand and contract and handle the high levels of heat necessary to properly vaporize a concentrate. Dab rigs that increase the diffusion of the vapor (with indentations and special formations in the glass) result in smoother, more enjoyable hits.


The temperature of the nail or banger is critical. Some experts recommend beginning at about 650 degrees F (343 C), while others will advise a target temp of 600 to 700 degrees F (315-371 C). Higher temperatures can result in a degradation of the terpenes in the concentrate, affecting flavor, aroma, and even medicinal efficacy (many terpenes act in a similar manner to cannabinoids and synergistically interact with them, so as many should be preserved as possible). Using a torch as a heat source can be tricky and requires some practice to get the temperature right. Electronic nails, of course, can be dialed into an exact temperature, just like many conventional desktop vaporizers intended for bud.


Also known as “dry sieve,” “dry sift,” or “pollen,” kief is one of the oldest forms of cannabis concentrates, dating back thousands of years. In its most pure form, kief is only trichomes, with no plant matter. Connoisseur-grade kief is comprised of only the heads of the trichomes, with none of the near-microscopic stems. The emergence of markedly more potent — and arguably more exotic — solvent-based extracts has made kief harder to find, even in legal states like Colorado and Oregon. Cultivators and processors simply make more money from concentrates like wax and shatter, which are also more potent.

Kief is the most simple of the concentrates. It is easily and safely produced at home and involves no solvents, heat, complex procedures, or chemical reactions. It can vary in color from yellow and green to gray and brown, depending on how much non-trichome plant matter is in the mix.

cannabis concentrates kief

Kief is typically created by separating the trichomes from the plant matter using a kiefing board or other device comprised of a special filtering screen. It can also be collected using a three-chamber bud grinder that employs a similar screen. The screens allow trichomes to fall thru to a collection plate or chamber, below, theoretically preventing any leaf matter, pistils, or other material that’s not a trichome to pass through. Because of its powdery nature, kief isn’t appropriate for dabbing.

Kief can be smoked or vaporized directly or used as a “garnish” for cannabis buds to enhance their flavor and potency. Depending on the quality of the cannabis flowers used to create kief, the equipment employed, and the competency of the person doing it, kief can vary in potency from about 20 percent THC to more than 60 percent.

Classic Hash

Classic hash, also called “pressed hash,” is when the trichomes of the plant are separated and compressed, often by hand. This creates a mass of resin resulting from the crushed trichomes. Depending on the collection technique employed and quality of the cannabis used, hash can result in a variety of colors, ranging from dark yellow to brown to even black (depending on the amount of plant and foreign matter in the final product). Examples of top-shelf hash and modern interpretations of this millennia-old concentrate include “bubble hash” and “full-melt hash.” To this day, some of the best old-school pressed hash hails from Afghanistan, Lebanon, and India.

cannabis concentrates pressed hash (1)

Water Hash

Also known as bubble hash, water hash involves soaking buds or, more typically, leaf trim in ice water. This causes the trichomes to become brittle and, upon the application of a bit of physical agitation, to fall off. Optimally, only the heads fall to the bottom of the ice water reservoir, where they are collected and dried. While typically not considered as high quality as solvent-based extraction processes, water hash can definitely be potent. Technically, the ice water acts as the solvent.

A popular product for creating water hash is Bubble Bags and their imitators. This approach involves a series of bags that feature different pore densities, becoming finer as the process proceeds and produces a variety of hash qualities. Water hash can easily be created by home gardeners, with low cost and relatively little effort. It also carries none of the dangers of the creation of butane hash oil, which is optimally created in a professional laboratory under strict conditions.

concentrates water hash

Butane Hash Oil

Butane Hash Oil, or BHO, is arguably the most popular form of cannabis concentrate. Also known as “honey oil” and available in a variety of forms — including crumble, errl, glass, honeycomb, shatter, budder, wax (earwax), and sap — BHO is the standard for many people who want to engage in dabbing. Typically, a BHO concentrate that resembles taffy or peanut butter is an inferior example of the art (and probably an accident on the part of its creator).

There are two primary concerns with BHO: First, the process by which it is made involves a highly volatile and potentially explosive substance (butane). Amateur BHO makers have gained widespread media attention after explosions have resulted in property destruction and even lost lives. Second, any residual butane left in the final product is not healthy. Patients considering BHO as a form of medicine must carefully choose the right brand or manufacturer. Facilities and labs that employ professional equipment operated by trained technicians are highly recommended to ensure a product that features as little residual solvent as possible.

concentrates butane hash oil

CO2 Oil

CO2 oil, typically of an amber color, is a healthier alternative to BHO, but can be produced using only expensive botanical extraction equipment found in professional laboratories. As the name implies, CO2 oil creation involves the use of carbon dioxide and very high pressure, a process called supercritical fluid extraction, or SFE. Supercritical fluids are unique because they exhibit properties of both a gas and a liquid. Thus, CO2 diffuses through solids (like a gas) but also dissolves compounds (like a liquid). This means that it easily permeates the cuticle, or “skin,” of trichomes, allowing it to very thoroughly extract all resin.

CO2 oil is perfect for use in vape pens and other applications. While less common than BHO, CO2 oil is healthier and easier to control. It also contains a larger number of terpenes than BHO, giving it a more impressive “terpene profile” and better realizing the potential of a particular strain of cannabis. For example, BHO typically features 0.5-3.5 percent terpenes (by mass). CO2 oil, on the contrary, contains 8-10 percent terpenes.

cannabis concentrates co2 oil


Tinctures, along with classic hash, are the oldest form of cannabis concentrate available. Until the prohibition of cannabis in 1937 by the United States federal government, cannabis tinctures were common on the walls of pharmacies throughout North America. A tincture is simply a liquid concentrate derived from alcohol extraction. Tinctures offer ease of consumption that doesn’t involve heat, can be flavored, and can be administered to children or pets for medicinal purposes.

Because they are concentrated, only a few drops of a good tincture placed under one’s tongue are necessary to gain a full dose. While more common for medical than recreational use, tinctures can safely be created by laypeople using the buds or trim from a home garden and simply soaking them in grain alcohol for a period of one to four weeks, depending on desired results and bud quality.

cannabis tincture

Live Resin

Live resin, one of the newest connoisseur-grade marijuana products, is a concentrate that has been extracted directly from a freshly harvested cannabis plant that has been cryogenically frozen (meaning the instant application of very low temperatures). Live resin is unique because it completely eliminates the drying process. With conventional bud, drying and curing can consume between 30 and 70 days, depending on strain and environment. Live resin offers a “fresh” alternative to conventional herb and a novel twist on the typical concentrate.

cannabis concentrates live resin

When harvesting marijuana, the drying process wreaks havoc on the beloved terpenes and cannabinoids found in cannabis, adversely affecting flavor and aroma. Live resin provides a unique way to enjoy the full flavor of cannabinoids and terpenes. According to DabTek, a concentrate manufacturer in Denver:

“Through a precise extraction process, a truly world-class concentrate can be produced. The effect and taste of properly prepared live resin are utterly unparalleled and give a true representation of a connoisseur’s delicacy.”

Live resin offers two primary benefits: Better flavors and a more complete terpene profile. Because terpenes do more than provide aroma, this process is arguably superior for capturing and delivering the maximum medical efficacy for a particular cannabis strain. The only downside of live resin is that it is relatively rare and costly. However, some dispensaries and retail stores in legal states like Oregon and Colorado offer live resin, with many more beginning to stock this novel, bleeding edge concentrate.

Whether one wants to consume BHO, CO2 oil, tinctures, kief, old school hash, water hash, or go exotic with the latest live resin, a wide variety of exciting concentrates are available that employ a wide range of technologies. If done right, all of these cannabis extractions provide uber-strong potency, sometimes wonderful flavors, and the ability to get a joint’s worth of THC in just one or two dab rips.


New Informative Videos about CBD's on our homepage

Learn more about Cannabis tincture ; Indica and Sativa tinctures at Broadway

“The benefit from smoking as a route of administration is instant action and the ability of the patient to self titrate the dose needed for relief. Here we describe how patients can achieve similar quick acting relief and the ability to control dose without smoking. It is important that the medical community understand that whole cannabis products are available today that provide significant relief without smoking. We don’t have to wait for a pharmaceutical pill to be developed years in the future in order to have the benefits of cannabis. The present pill (Marinol) has proven very unsatisfactory due to a long delay of action time, poor absorption in the GI tract, and its failure to include many of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cannabinoids present in whole cannabis and its extracts. In addition, future pharmaceuticals will be wildly expensive.  [Editor’s note: Most importantly, side effects of Marinol include death, with the FDA reporting 4 deaths directly related to Marinol, and one death indirectly related.]

Tinctures are not new. Until cannabis was banned in 1937, tinctures were the primary type of cannabis medicines. Tinctures are essentially alcohol extractions of whole cannabis (usually the flowers and trim leaves). Tinctures are easy to make and very inexpensive. Tinctures contain all 80 of the essential cannabinoids instead of only one with Marinol. Some of the cannabinoids such as cannibidiol (CBD) actually reduce the psychoactive effects of THC while increasing the overall efficacy of the preparation.

The best way to use tinctures is sublingually (under the tongue). Titration or dose control is easily achieved by the number of drops a patient places under the tongue where the medicine is rapidly absorbed into the arterial system and is quickly transported to the brain and body. All a patient need do with tincture is use a few drops, wait for the desired medical effects, and either use more or stop as the situation indicates. Tinctures can be flavored for better taste. They are best stored in dark bottles in the refrigerator. Since tinctures average some 75% ethanol there is little worry of bacterial or other biological contamination. Those who wish to avoid alcohol can instead use their tincture as a base for making a concentrated elixir. (recipe)”  – viaSmokeless Medicine

In Sale in our Broadway Location at special price 35$

Here is Dr. Frankl’s excellent post on tinctures

A Note from Jay R. Cavanaugh, Ph.D., AAMC, National Director ~

Many patients who utilize and benefit from medical cannabis do not wish to smoke due to the perceived health hazards of smoking or for other personal reasons. These patients are in something of a bind. Smoking cannabis delivers the active cannabinoids within seconds. Medicine is absorbed in the lungs and goes directly to the brain and general circulation. The same effect can be achieved with a vaporizer, which is safer than smoking burning vegetable matter. Since the effects of inhaled cannabis are so quick, it is easy for patients to titrate their dose by simply waiting a minute or two in between puffs.

Oral cannabis, such as our Better Bud Butter, is absorbed in a very different fashion from smoking or inhalation. The GI tract gradually absorbs Cannabinoids over the course of one to two hours. Medicine is processed first by the liver, which converts some cannabinoids such as delta nine to delta 11 version of THC. Orally delivered cannabis requires four to ten times the amount of the smoked version in order to achieve the same effect. Orally delivered cannabis can present a problem in achieving the required or desired dose level in any consistent fashion.

Tincture is designed to address the problems of rapid medicine delivery and consistent dosing. Most tinctures are made to be used under the tongue or sublingually. English pharmaceutical companies are presently working on a cannabis extract “spray” that can be used under the tongue in a similar fashion. These sprays are not expected to be approved for use in the United States for years and will be very expensive. Absorption by the arterial blood supply under the tongue is completed in seconds. One trick is to not swallow the dose as, if swallowed, absorption will be in the GI tract. Many patients, though, add their tincture to a cup of tea or cranberry juice for easy delivery. When tincture is used in a beverage, absorption will be slower than if absorbed under the tongue. While tincture absorbed in an empty stomach is accomplished in minutes, conversion in the liver remains, as does the difficulty in titrating dose. Usually, a tincture dose is delivered by means of a medicine dropper or a teaspoon. A rule of thumb on dose is that patients receive benefit from 3-4 drops to a couple of full droppers depending upon the potency of the tincture and the patient’s own unique requirements among other factors.

The methods listed below will detail two major methods of preparing tincture. While the methods are optimized for purity and potency, ultimately these will largely be determined by the purity and potency of the cannabis from which the tincture is made. Another item of note in regard to starting material for tincture is the patient or caregiver selection of strain. A rough rule of thumb is to select Indica dominant strains for cramping and muscle spasticity and Sativa dominant strains for pain relief. The reality, though, is often that the strain is unknown or not well characterized. Trial and error is usually required to acquire the appropriate strain and the proper dose level.

General Rules:

Tincture is an extraction of active cannabinoids from plant material. Cannabis contains many chemicals that can either upset the stomach or taste nasty. One of the goals of extraction is to secure the cannabinoids while leaving out as many of the terpenes and chlorophylls as possible. Both heat and light adversely effect cannabinoids and should be avoided or minimized. Tincture should be stored in airtight dark glass containers kept at room temperature or below. Avoid plastic containers. The ethanol in the tincture may solubilize some of the free vinyls in the plastic. (Source)

Cold Method (recommended)

Here is the recipe for highest quality tincture. This method does not use heat so keeps the integrity of the cannabinoids intact.

“Making tincture cold preserves the integrity of cannabinoids. To be potent, this method requires starting material high in cannabinoid content such as flowers or kief made from trim and leaf. The material must be mold free and dry.”- from Dr Allan Frankyl:  (Please pop over to Dr. Frankyl’s site and read his excellent post on making tinctures. He includes much information about CBD and more details than we can include here.)

NOTE: Our readers have pointed out that the below recipe fails to make note of the need to decarboxylate your cannabis first, as described in the “hot method” below. Dennis Hill writes about decarboxylation and its necessity for those curing cancer here.

Also see: Decarboxylating Cannabis: Turning THCA into THC

Recipe from WAMM:

1. Fill jar ¾ full of herb

2. Fill rest of jar with alcohol; leave some room at top, stir.

3. Shake jar [vigorously] one or two times a day  for 2 weeks [or leave it until there is no green color left in the plant matter]

4. Strain through metal tea strainer or silkscreen.

You can use whatever kind of clean glass, not plastic, jar you have with a tight lid. One-quart mason jars are ideal. Grind the herb thoroughly in a blender. It should be well ground but doesn’t have to be a powder. You can use leaf, bud, shake, joint leftover, or stems. Too many stems will wreck your blender and a weaker tincture. Leaf work fine but for higher potency use shake or bud. Fill the jar ¾ full of herb; it does not have to be exact. You can use anywhere from ½ to 2/3 part herb but ¾ will make a full strength tincture. Use the highest proof alcohol you can, Everclear, which is 180 proof, but hard to find. So just use the highest proof Vodka you can find. Pour alcohol over the herb, filling the rest of the jar. Leave just enough space (an inch or so) at the top so that you will be able to shake the jar. Stir the mixture; the herb will absorb some of the alcohol so you may need to add more. Put the lid on tightly; label the contents and the date you started. It takes two weeks for the alcohol to extract all the active elements from the herb. Shake the jar once or twice a day for 2 weeks. The alcohol will rise to the top and a deep green/red color will develop. After 2 weeks of aging you can strain the tincture through a metal tea strainer or a silk screen into a small tincture bottle with a dropper. You can leave the rest in the jar if you want, it will age and mellow in flavor and you can strain off as much as you want at a time. Alcohol is a strong preservative it will hold for a long time, be careful when handling the tincture, it satins and will turn everything it comes in contact with green. Use Ultra Palmolive anti-bacterial dish soap, the orange kind, to clean the glass, metal or other ceramic utensils, (do not use plastic) sinks and counter tops works best at dissolving THC residue.

Dosage varies per individual but start with half a dropper dissolved in hot tea or water. Hot tea will dissipate some of the alcohol and activate the THC a bit. It can be taken straight but may burn the tongue and has a very strong herbal taste. [If you cut it with equal parts water, you can hold the dosage under the tongue without burning. Takes effect in seconds.]

This video shows cold-method tincture being made. Again, remember to decarboxylate first. Note that the mixture can remain in a dark place for up to a year before straining. It’s entirely up to you.

Hot Method, aka “Green Dragon”

Here are process details, references and rationalizations: (Source)

1. Chop the cannabis—more surface area gives means a faster and more efficient extraction. [You can literally chop it into a powder.]

2. Bake the cannabis (decarboxylate).
In whole-plant cannabis, THC content is expressed as THCA (tetrahydrocannabolic acid) prior to decarboxylation into THC, which takes place when cannabis is heated during cooking, and smoked or vaporized ingestion. THCA is a mild analgesic and anti-inflammatory but does not have good affinity with our CB1 receptors, so in order to make a THC-rich tincture that has many of the same therapeutic effects as smoked ingestion (including rapid absorption, quick relief and ease of self-titration), we must convert the THCA in the plant matter into THC prior to extracting it through an alcohol soak. (from Vancouver Island Compassion Society)

THC vaporizes at about 380°F. We want to heat the cannabis to convert THCA to THC, but keep the temperature under 380°F. That is why 325°F is used. Between four and five minutes your oven (and house) will start to smell very strong. This the time to remove the cannabis from the oven.

Notice also that there is considerable misinformation regarding heating the cannabis. It is true that you don’t have to heat it to extract both THC and THCA, but the amount of THC in whole plant preparations is relatively small compared to after decarboxylation of the THCA. So if you want to maximize the strength of your tincture you must heat the cannabis prior to extraction.

3. Use the highest proof alcohol available. In my area this was Bacardi 151. The more alcohol the more efficient the extraction will be.

4. Simmer the mixture.
This is one of the areas that seems to be most debated. Many recipes call for placing the cannabis (unbaked of course) into the alcohol and waiting 2 – 6 weeks. The main concern with heating the alcohol is that it is “explosive” (not exactly true…it is however flammable).

The purpose of the simmering is to heat the alcohol mixture to improve extraction rates and efficiencies. Heating during extraction increases the motion of the molecules (basic physics/chemistry) and drastically decreases extraction times. The boiling point of pure ethanol is 173°F (78°C). We will use the water bath to heat the rum/cannabis mixture to just below the boiling point of ethanol.

Heating the alcohol mixture can be done very safely using a hot water bath. You will need an accurate candy or quick read thermometer. Place about 1 inch of water in a wide, vertical-edged pan (9” wide x 3” high). Bring the water to a low simmer. The rum/cannabis mixture should be in a small (1 pint) mason jar. Do NOT cover the jar.

Put the thermometer into the mason jar and place into the simmering water bath. Bring the temperature of the rum/cannabis mixture to about 165°F (I maintain it between 150°F and 165°F). You want the alcohol mixture to be just barely moving (not boiling, but showing active convection within the mixture). If the mixture starts to bubble too much, just turn down the water bath.

You should have the oven fan on high. You will notice that any alcohol fumes are mixed with water vapor from the water bath and vented out the fan. This combined with the fact that you are trying not to boil the ethanol makes the process quite safe.

5. Strain, titrate, and store.
When you are finished with the extraction you will be left with about 1oz of green dragon tincture. Note that one ounce of the alcohol has evaporated.

Now you should test your eyedropper. In my test 34 full droppers equaled one ounce of liquid (this is a little less than one gram of liquid per dropper-ful as 29g equals 1ounce).

The liquid should be dark green and smell like cannabis.  1/8oz of good cannabis yields about 30-34 doses of tincture.

These videos show hot-method tincture being made


How Marijuana Reduces Blood Pressure

Introduction to the Study:

Can marijuana be the future replacement for commonly used blood pressure medicine? For nearly twenty years, researchers and their work have suggested that endocannabinoids have a strong effect on blood vessels, causing vasodilation (blood vessel widening) and reducing blood pressure. But the work hasn’t been refined. Up until recent, the isolation of which endocannabinoids and receptors involved in this process wasunknown.

That’s what Christopher Stanley and his team at the University Of Nottingham School Of Medicine sought to discover. In the study, they activated cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, along with transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARᵧ) andthe novel endothelial cannabinoid receptor (CBᶒ). It was found that, out of all the receptors involved in blood vessel constriction/activation, activation of CB1 receptors on endothelial (blood vessel) tissue helped to reduce stress on vessels that were constricted; this is what happens when vessels dilate and blood pressure reduces. There was no response when CB2 receptors on endothelium were activated. The only instances when CB1 activation didn’t cause vasodilation of all the CB1 receptors was in males and in patients with type –2 diabetes or hypercholesterolemia (high levels of cholesterol).

Cannabidiol (also known as CBD) is the non-psychoactive component that is found in cannabis. The other active component in cannabis (THC) is also a cannabinoid that’s associated with the euphoric effect of cannabis. CBD and THC are both considered cannabinoids, which means that they’re molecules that bind to receptors of the endocannabinoid system which are found all throughout the body. The primary receptors of this system that attract marijuana cannabinoids are CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are often found in brain, central nervous system and blood vessels while CB2 receptors are mainly found in the body’s peripheral organs. THC and CBD work by locking into these receptors, a mechanism that normally occurs in the body with internal endocannabinoids Anadimide and 2-Arachidonyl glycerol. That’s why cannabis has gained so much attention from the medical world, because THC and CBD stimulate the same receptors that are involved in the body’s hemostasis physiology; maintaining the body’s internal system and biological responses functioning adequately.

In brief summation, when a cannabinoid (also referred to as a ligand) attaches to a CB1 cell receptor in key-lock fashion, a signal transduction ensues within the cell environment. More specifically, an inhibitory protein is activated and the enzyme that produces cAMP (a very important second messenger for many biological functions) isn’t produced. Therefore, when CB1 receptor is activated by CBD, the biological process of vessel constriction is inhibited and the vessel relaxes and widens. When the vessel relaxes and widens, blood pressure falls.    

The study built upon the extensive collection of research that suggests that endogenous, synthetic, and plant-derived cannabinoids cause vasorelaxation on animal and human arterial beds (network collections of arteries). The extent of these effects differs among the cannabinoid compound (CBD, THC) that was studied and arterial bed used.

A previous study by Offertaler reported that CBD caused a near maximal rate of vasorelaxation of mesenteric arteries, but the mechanism of action wasn’t determined. The isolated aorta in a rat showed that CBD caused time-dependent vasorelaxation.

Therefore, the aim of the study was set to establish the effects of CBD on blood vessels and to pin point the mechanism of action of any potential responses.

How was the Study Performed?

After ethical approval was granted by the Derbyshire Research Ethics Committee and Derbyshire Hospitals Trust Research and Development, researchers gathered mesenteric tissue (abdominal area) from 34 patients (24 males and 10 females) who were scheduled to undergo colorectal surgery. Histological stains of mesenteric tissue with artery sections were prepared with saline solution. Artery segments were isolated, mounted on tungsten wires, and maintained at standard body temperature (37 degreesCelsius), and gassed with 5% CO2 in O2. The tension of the vessels was measured using isometric force displacement transducers and recorded.

After arteries were contracted by using U46619 (prostaglandin analogue involved in blood vessel constriction) and Endothelin(constrict blood vessels), response curves were constructed to CBD administration. CBD was added every five minutes and the measurements of relaxation were recorded.


Of the 34 patients that were used in the study, 27 had cancer and 7 had inflammatory disorder.  The CBD that was administered to pre-constricted mesenteric arteries caused a vasorelaxation of 40%. When added to un-contracted arteries, CBD had no effect on baseline tone.

This study was the first to demonstrate concrete evidence on the vasorelaxant effects of CBD on human mesenteric arteries that express CB1 activation. Furthermore, when an antagonist(ligand that inactivates CB1 receptor action) was applied to CB1receptors in two separate experiments, inhibition of CBD-induced vasorelaxation occurred. The vessels did not relax. This suggested that CB1 is a target for CBD in human mesenteric vessels. A second antagonist (LY320135) was applied to the CB1 receptors, which also found to be an inhibitor of the vasorelaxant response, also indicating CB1 receptor activation in vasorelaxation.

The results of this study (originally published in June 2015) brought further insight into the biomolecular response of CBD on the body’s internal endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid receptors proved to be an active component in blood vessel constriction and relaxation. In a constricted vessel, activation of CB1 receptors with CBD caused the vessels to relax and dilate; a desired response to increased blood pressure.Further research that builds upon this study can lead the way to providing an alternative and safer treatment for high blood pressure, an often fatal condition.

Fabian Hernandez is a Senior Writer for BioTrackTHC. He’s a published novelist and holds a Master’s Degree in Biomedical Sciences.


After Decades of Denial National Cancer Institute Finally Admits that “Cannabis Kills Cancer”

After decades of claiming that cannabis has no medicinal value, the U.S. government is finally admitting that cannabis can kill cancer cells.Although still claiming, “there is not enough evidence to recommend that patients inhale or ingest cannabis as a treatment for cancer-related symptoms or side effects of cancer therapy,” the admission that “cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells in the laboratory,” highlights a rapidly changing perspective on medicinal cannabis treatments. In the most recent update to the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) website included a listing of studies, which indicated anti-tumor effects of cannabis treatment..

Preclinical studies of cannabinoids have investigated the following activities:

Antitumor activity
• Studies in mice and rats have shown that cannabinoids may inhibit tumor growth by causing cell death, blocking cell growth, and blocking the development of blood vessels needed by tumors to grow. Laboratory and animal studies have shown that cannabinoids may be able to kill cancer cells while protecting normal cells.
• A study in mice showed that cannabinoids may protect against inflammation of the colon and may have potential in reducing the risk of colon cancer, and possibly in its treatment.
• A laboratory study of delta-9-THC in hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) cells showed that it damaged or killed the cancer cells. The same study of delta-9-THC in mouse models of liver cancer showed that it had antitumor effects. Delta-9-THC has been shown to cause these effects by acting on molecules that may also be found in non-small cell lung cancer cells and breast cancer cells.
• A laboratory study of cannabidiol (CBD) in estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells showed that it caused cancer cell death while having little effect on normal breast cells. Studies in mouse models of metastatic breast cancer showed that cannabinoids may lessen the growth, number, and spread of tumors.
• A laboratory study of cannabidiol (CBD) in human glioma cells showed that when given along with chemotherapy, CBD may make chemotherapy more effective and increase cancer cell death without harming normal cells. Studies in mouse models of cancer showed that CBD together with delta-9-THC may make chemotherapy such as temozolomide more effective.

The NCI, part of the U.S. Department of Health, advises that ‘cannabinoids may be useful in treating the side effects of cancer and cancer treatment’ by smoking, eating it in baked products, drinking herbal teas or even spraying it under the tongue.

The site goes on to list other beneficial uses, which include: anti-inflammatory activity, blocking cell growth, preventing the growth of blood vessels that supply tumors, antiviral activity and relieving muscle spasms caused by multiple sclerosis.

Several scientific studies have given indications of these beneficial properties in the past, and this past April the US government’s National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) revised their publications to suggest cannabis could shrink brain tumors by killing off cancer cells, stating, “marijuana can kill certain cancer cells and reduce the size of others.”

“Evidence from one animal study suggests that extracts from whole-plant marijuana can shrink one of the most serious types of brain tumors,” the NIDA said. “Research in mice showed that these extracts, when used with radiation, increased the cancer-killing effects of the radiation.”

Research on marijuana’s potential as a medicine has been stifled for decades by federal restrictions, even though nearly half of the states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical marijuana in some form.

Although cannabis has been increasingly legalized by states, the federal government still classifies marijuana as a Schedule 1 drug — along with heroin and ecstasy — defining it as having no medical benefits and a potential for abuse.

The vast majority of the $1.4 billion spent on marijuana research, by the National Institute of Health, absurdly involves the study of abuse and addiction, with only $297 million being spent researching potential medical benefits.

Judging by the spending levels, it seems the feds have a vested interest in keeping public opinion of cannabis negative. Perhaps “Big Pharma” is utilizing their financial influence over politicians in an effort to maintain a stranglehold on the medical treatment market.




13-Year-Old Chico Ryder is Kickin’ Cancer with Cannabis Oil

Chico having his port needle changed. On this particular day it took 7 attempts to get it in properly - ooch. That means 7 separate needle pricks in the same place and they have to press really hard to find the right spot.

Chico Ryder was 11 years old when he was diagnosed with Stage III/Group III parameningeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, an especially aggressive soft tissue cancer, in December 2012. He began the long road to recovery and immediately began chemotherapy after diagnosis.


From February to March 2013, Chico completed a 28-session protocol of radiation, which consisted of one session a day five days a week. The intense combination of these treatments caused horrendous side effects, including near-daily vomiting and painful nerve damage. It got so bad that every time Chico had chemotherapy, he needed to stay in the hospital.

Chico’s parents, Paul and Angela Ryder, knew they needed to do something to mitigate the damage from conventional treatments, as well as boost their cancer-fighting power. Angela learned about cannabis oil, and they decided it was the right thing to do.

Chico had tried Marinol, a synthetic form of THC, which was somewhat effective at first but eventually lost potency. He began receiving whole plant cannabis oil from Aunt Zelda’s collective in July 2013.

Chico's Mother, Angela Smith


The impact of cannabis extract therapy was remarkable. While it did not fully reverse the side effects of the large doses of chemotherapy and radiation, there were significant improvements. Chico’s vomiting reduced by half, and the neuropathy stopped progressing. By August 2013, he was able to get off intravenous nutrition and begin using a g-tube, which is better for the liver.

The doctors also pushed a substantial amount of opiates on Chico, including methadone; cannabis oil was very effective at helping Chico get off these opiates. In addition, Chico’s white blood cell counts recovered faster than expected after chemotherapy sessions, and he did not need to delay chemotherapy at all once he began using cannabis oil.

“I wish we had done it from the beginning. I believe cannabis oil helped the chemotherapy do its job and protected Chico’s body from damage,” said Angela.



Indeed, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been proven to induce programmed cell death in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Both THC and cannabidiol (CBD) are neuroprotective antioxidants that help prevent neuropathy. Chico ingested ample amounts of THC and CBD during his treatment. At his peak, he was ingesting 900mg of THC and 500mg of CBD a day, using the respective THC-rich and CBD-rich strains.

In addition to cannabis, Chico had excellent nutrition and used an herbal formula designed to increase white blood cells.

Chico used a range of integrative therapies alongside the conventional treatment, including cannabis oil (which is legal in his home state of California), mistletoe, acupuncture, a range of supplements including medicinal mushrooms, IP6 and a whole host of others.

By November 2013, Chico was declared in remission. He has been able to drastically reduce his cannabis dose to 85mg of THC and 100mg of CBD a day. Chico has since recovered from much of the damage he endured, but there is still a fair way to go.


Chico continues to use these integrative therapies to help prevent relapse and is committed to helping spread the word, particularly about the benefits for cancer patients of cannabis oil and is actively campaigning for it to be more widely available to all cancer patients.

In fact, Chico has been instrumental in kickstarting discussion about a potential research project involving cannabis and pediatric cancer at UCLA where he was treated. Chico has lost too many friends to this monster of a disease to sit back and do nothing. He loves music, learning to play the drums and playing the latest video games. It is hopeful that with continued nutrition and cannabis extract therapy, Chico will completely recover.

You can show Chico your support by liking and sharing his facebook page, and by sending him a message of encouragement.


Studies Finds Link Between Autism and Cannabinoids

A new study shows that mutations associated with autism block the action

of brain molecules that act on the same receptors that marijuana’s active

chemical acts on

A new study shows that mutations associated with autism block the action of brain molecules that act on the same receptors that marijuana’s active chemical acts on. Endocannabinoids are molecules that affect memory, learning, pain, and other important processes. They share a similar chemical structure with THC, the primary psychoactive component of marijuana. Endocannabinoids naturally occur in the human brain, and are responsible for synaptic signaling within the brain.

Thomas Sudhof, a cellular physiologist at Stanford University, tested mutations associated with autism in mice. Two mutations associated with autism in a synapse-adhesion protein led to deficits in prolonged endocannabinoid signaling in mice. This suggests that autism could caused by a disruption of the brain’s ability to send clear signals.

The researchers studied two mutations in neurologin-3 (NL-3), a gene encoding a protein that builds and maintains synapses. One mutation is a deletion of the entire gene, while the other, R451, contains a single amino acid substitution. Both of these mutations have been associated with autism in humans.

Sudhof and colleagues made electrophysiological recordings of the interactions between pairs of cells in the hippocampal areas of the mouse brains. They compared the brains of the mutated mice with those of normal mice. They found that cells containing cannabinoid type-1 (CB-1) receptors showed that tonic endocannabinoid signaling had been disrupted.

The researchers are not clear on why the mutations affect endocannabinoid signaling. They also do not yet understand how endocannibinoid signaling deficits are involved with the symptoms of autism. Their findings do, however, call for more research, which could lead to new and improved treatments for autism.

Another study by Danielle Piomelli of UC Irvine and Olivier Manzoni of INSERM, the French national research agency, treated mice exhibiting symptoms of Fragile-X Syndrome, a disorder that causes autistic symptoms, with novel compounds that correct the signaling of endocannibinoid transmitters in the brain. The mice showed dramatic behavioral improvements in maze tests measuring anxiety and open-space acceptance.

Do these findings suggest that medical marijuana may be the future of autism treatment?1 It is too early to tell, but families who are already using the drug to treat their children’s symptoms believe it has made all the difference in the world. Many children with autism are already given cocktails of drugs that may be even stronger than marijuana, with serious side effects and limited results. Meiko Hester-Perez credits medical marijuana with saving her son’s life. He was dangerously underweight, with extreme anxiety and self-injurious behaviors. Alex Echols is another child who suffered from extreme rages with self-injurious behaviors, and his family writes about their success with medical marijuana on their family blog at

The researchers involved in these studies do not advocate giving medical marijuana to children with autism, but they do concede that these findings may lead to medications and treatments that can increase the natural endocannibinoids already found in the human brain. These treatments may also be useful for many other debilitating illnesses, including anxiety, pain, depression, and obesity.


Broadway and Hastings Pink and Death Bubba added. Nanaimo location also updated 

Pink and Death Bubba are available at Broadway and Hastings location.. Hurry up  limited inventory..


Menu Updated in Nanaimo ..  They got some Quantum and Sour Diesel flowers,   Girl scout shatter & budder, Cherry oil and more.


Oregon becomes third US state to allow recreational marijuana sales

PORTLAND, Ore. (Reuters) - Marijuana sales for recreational use began in Oregon on Thursday as it joined Washington state and Colorado in allowing the sale of a drug that remains illegal under U.S. federal law.

Oregon residents 21 years and older can buy up to a quarter-ounce (seven grams) of dried pot at roughly 200 existing medical-use marijuana dispensaries as a new law took effect.

Backers hope the law will help curb a flourishing black market, but opponents say it heightens drug use and access by children.

About 40 people lined up outside the medical pot dispensary Shango in a strip mall near Portland International Airport for the chance to buy recreational pot one minute after midnight, when the changes went into effect.

"We came to be part of the experiment," said Juliano Hamana, 24, in line with his girlfriend.

"I'm worried about the 25 percent tax coming in January," he said, "but for a $10 gram that's only a bit over $2 more. I think it might be worth it for the quality."

Voters in Oregon and Alaska last year approved marijuana use and possession in state-regulated frameworks. Alaska's law took effect in February, but regulations for stores are still in the works. Pot shops created specifically for the recreational market, like those operating in Washington state and Colorado, are expected to start in 2016 in both Oregon and Alaska.

The District of Columbia has also legalized marijuana possession.

While marijuana use remains illegal for any reason under federal law, 23 states allow cannabis for medical purposes. Legalization measures will be on the ballot in Ohio in November and in other states in 2016.

In Oregon, possessing and growing pot became legal in July. Through 2015, sales of pot for recreational use will be untaxed, though that will likely change next year.

"You can get all the best strains from Oregon, which can make this into a top tourist spot," said Sue Vorenberg, editor of the Cannabis Daily Record.

Roughly 30 municipalities in Oregon have enacted bans to the sale of recreational pot, while others have sharply limited the nascent industry.

In Portland, the state's largest city, lawmakers on Wednesday approved limits on the recreational marijuana stores that will open there, such as a requirement they be no closer than 1,000 feet (305 meters) from a school.

Portland commissioners said they expected to take further steps to refine their rules for the industry.


Canadian Study Focuses on Chronic Pain and Medical Marijuana

A Canadian research team has completed a benchmark study that looks at the effects of cannabis when used in pain management.

The team was led by Dr. Mark Ware from the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre in Montreal. The national multicentre study looked at the safety of medical marijuana use among patients suffering from chronic pain. They found that patients with chronic pain who used cannabis daily for one year, when carefully monitored, did not have an increase in serious adverse events compared to pain patients who did not use cannabis. The results of the study have been published online in The Journal of Pain.

"This is the first and largest study of the long term safety of medical cannabis use by patients suffering from chronic pain ever conducted," said Dr. Ware. "We found that medical cannabis, when used by patients who are experienced users, and as part of a monitored treatment program for chronic pain over one year, appears to have a reasonable safety profile."

As part of the Cannabis for the Management of Pain: Assessment of Safety Study (COMPASS), that started in 2004, the researchers followed 215 adult patients, with chronic non-cancer pain, who used medical cannabis, and compared them to a control group of 216 chronic pain sufferers who were not cannabis users. The study involved seven centres with pain management expertise across Canada located in Fredericton, Halifax, London, Montreal (two sites), Toronto, and Vancouver.

Patients were given access to herbal cannabis containing 12.5 per cent THC from a licenced producer. The marijuana was dispensed through the hospital pharmacy at each site, and patients collected their supply every month after completing the necessary visits and tests. Participants underwent lung function and cognitive testing, were asked about their pain, mood, and quality of life over the one year of follow up.

A number of the subjects underwent complete panels of blood tests for routine biochemistry, liver and kidney function, and selected hormone levels. The average amount of cannabis used overall was 2.5 grams per day whether smoked, vaporized or taken as edibles.

"Our data shows that daily cannabis users had no greater risk than non-users (control group) to experience serious adverse events,'' added Dr. Ware. ''We found no evidence of harmful effects on cognitive function, or blood tests among cannabis consumers and we observed a significant improvement in their levels of pain, symptom distress, mood and quality of life compared to controls.''

However, researchers did report an increased risk of non-serious adverse effects from the medical marijuana. Participants reported headaches, nausea, dizziness, and respiratory problems associated with smoking the drug.

"It is important to note the limitations of the study," adds Dr. Ware. "Patients were self-selected, not randomized, and most were experienced users. So what we are seeing is that it appears to be a relatively safe drug when used by people who have already determined that it helps them. We cannot draw conclusions about safety issues of new cannabis users."

The study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research .


Hasting and Granville are showing new strains .. 

Check out their menu Online




Master Kush, Tuna and Black God are on the Broadway menu now.

Master Kush at 7.50$  ,, Tuna at 10$ ,, Black God on the marley menu at 14$


Our Nanaimo Menu has been updated


Watch out the Daily specials at Granville

 Monday: PRIMO - $10 off - 1/8 of ........

Tuesday: Budder Day - $10 off - ..........

Wednesday: Shatter Day - $10 off - ....

Thursday: Any $12 strain at..................

Friday, Saturday & Sunday: Weekend Special -

$ off & free.. - 1/8 of any $10 Strains for ..... 

Find out more  the Granville Menu and scroll down to weekly specials


Marijuana prohibition can do more harm than good, doctors tell federal parties

If Canada's new government chooses to legalize marijuana beyond medical use then it should get into the business of controlling its supply and sale to prevent the rise of a "Big Cannabis," addiction specialists say.

Cannabis policy could be an issue ahead of October's federal election. The governing Conservative party favours the status quo, the competing Liberals seek to legalize, regulate and tax, and the New Democrats support decriminalization. The Green Party has said it would legalize and tax marijuana.

In a commentary published in Monday's issue of the Canadian Medical Association Journal, addiction doctors describe the negative aspects of prohibiting cannabis use, such as fuelling the illegal drug trade and the high costs and harms associated with policing and prosecuting people.

Marijuana plant in Vancouver traffic circle with other plants-tight

Often the harms from prohibition versus harms from potential increased use of cannabis are falsely pitted against each other, doctors say. (Siavash Dezvareh/CBC)

"We're hoping to provide some direction to policy-makers in Canada to encourage them to rethink their current policies around cannabis, to move away from prohibition because it doesn't work and has a lot of harms associated with it," Dr. Sheryl Spithoff, a family physician and addiction doctor at Women's College Hospital in Toronto and one of the coauthors of the paper, said in an interview.

Often the harms from prohibition versus harms from potential increased use of cannabis are falsely pitted against each other, Spithoff and her team said. But cannabis prohibition has shown to have no effect on rates of use in developed countries.

"A frequently cited concern with legalization is that it will allow the rise of Big Cannabis, similar to Big Tobacco and Big Alcohol. These powerful multinational corporations have revenues and market expansion as their primary goals, with little consideration of the impact on public health. They increase tobacco and alcohol use by lobbying for favourable regulations and funding huge marketing campaigns. It is important that the regulations actively work against the establishment of Big Cannabis," the authors wrote.

They suggest that policy-makers draw on the extensive research on tobacco, alcohol and cannabis policy frameworks developed by public health researchers to create a Canadian approach that maximizes benefits and minimizes harm of the potentially addictive substance.

2013 UNICEF report found that the prevalence of self-reported cannabis use among youth aged 11, 13 and 15 in the preceding year was highest in Canada at 28 per cent. Findings in other countries included:

  • Norway — 4%.
  • Spain — 24%.
  • The Netherlands — 17%.
  • United Kingdom — 18%.
  • U.S. — 22%.

"Our hope with legalizing it is that less youth will have access to it," Spithoff said. "We'll be able to achieve our public health objectives, restricting access; limited hours that stores are open; and also young people won't have to go the illegal market to access cannabis. Especially for young adults, that's risky. It allows them to be exposed to other substances, more harmful substances."

In 2014, the Toronto-based Centre for Addiction and Mental Healthestimated enforcement of cannabis laws costs Canadians $1.2 billion a year. 

Spithoff said the harms of prohibition to individuals include the criminal records of 500,000 Canadians because of cannabis possession, stigma around its use and barriers to medical marijuana treatment.

In the CMAJ paper, the authors also compare the experiences with marijuana policies in the Netherlands, Spain, Uruguay and three U.S. states, where cannabis is legal for recreational use.

For example, Spithoff said Uruguay has a model that could be adapted for use in Canada, because it puts public health first. In contrast, the Dutch model hasn't solved the "back door" illegal supply problem.

Uruguay has licensed producers and a government commission that purchases cannabis from growers. The government sells it to individuals through pharmacies. The commission has control over production, quality and prices and has the ability to undercut the illegal market. Uruguay has also set a cutoff for cannabis-impaired driving.  

Canada legalized marijuana for medical use in 2001. Detailed rules for commercial production and use of medical marijuana were implemented in 2014.

At a marijuana dispensary in Toronto, the idea of legalizing recreational pot was met with skepticism.

While cannabis advocate Amy Brown welcomes some regulation, she disagrees that pot is a public health concern any more than tobacco or alcohol. She worries about what government control would mean for growing the plant.

"The word 'monopoly' is where I disagree. A monopoly means complete and utter control of this product," Brown said. "Maybe an advisory board would be beneficial so that moms and pops who are growing their own cannabis can still grow their own."


Rosin Tech (Heat Press Nugs/bubble hash to Shatter) solventless concentrate

Rosin Tech seems to be the newest hype in the Vancouver cannabis community and is becoming a growing trend around North America.To put it simply, Rosin Tech is a premium grade solventless concentrate made from the power of a magical device called....

Hair Straightener.

Rosin Tech Straightener rosin tech



Or if your feeling like P Diddy and you wanna make enough Rosin Tech for the whole party we recommend a high tech device called

T-shirt Press

Rosin Tech tshirt press rosin tech



The process was developed by Gandalf the Great to save the dabbing population of solvent based concentrates.. Just checking if your still reading. 

Rosin Tech is made using a combination of heat & pressure on the nugs or material you are pressing.

The result will be either a Shatter like concentrate or could also be sappy oil as well, depending on the strains and conditions.

Things you will need to make this awesome solventless concentrate:

– x1 hair straightener – for straightening hair. preferable one that is wider
– x1 Parchment paper & tea bags (or 25u screens if your boss)
– Gloves – the flat iron gets hot
– Marijuana Buds or Dry Sift..

Take your hair straightener and place the parchment paper with the product between it and apply pressure for 5-8 seconds at a time until you see an oil come out of the bud which is the rosin.


Pink Kush and Death Bubba at Broadway


We have RootBeer Budder, you gonna like it 

60$ gr. and 30$ half gr. 

At Broadway and Granville location


Bedrocan Canada and Tweed announce multi-centre longitudinal surveillance study of medical cannabis patients


EQUAL Clinical Research Initiative Will Gather Anonymized Patient Data on Effects of Medical Cannabis

TORONTOSept. 17, 2015 /CNW/ - Bedrocan Canada Inc. ("Bedrocan" or the "Company"), a subsidiary of Tweed Marijuana Inc. (TSXV: TWD) ("TMI" or "Tweed"), along with its sister company Tweed Inc., is pleased to announce the launch of the EQUAL (Evaluation QUAlity of Life) study. The clinical research initiative is a multi-centre, non-interventional, un-blinded study to evaluate quality of life in Canadian patients treated with medical cannabis. 

The company-sponsored study will evaluate patients who use Bedrocan and Tweed strains of cannabis to help manage symptoms of a range of chronic health conditions, and the resulting data will be submitted for publication by a peer-reviewed medical journal. To ensure patient privacy, all data collected will be anonymized and stored in a secure electronic database.

The primary objective of the study, which is intended to continue for three years, include more than 50 sites, and enroll up to 6,000 patients, is to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) of patients before and after treatment with medical cannabis. The study will use a well-established general QoL assessment instrument, the SF-36, and will record both positive and negative effects attributed to treatment.

The study will include patients registered under Health Canada's Marijuana for Medical Purposes Regulations (MMPR), who use Bedrocan and Tweed strains, and who volunteer to participate. Patients will be compensated for their participation via discounted cost of product used during the period of the study (12 months per patient), and clinical sites participating in the study will receive a nominal fee for the time required to complete and submit subject surveys of a patient.

The study will not include patients from Quebec, for whom a separate, independent research study was launched in May, 2015, as part of the Quebec Cannabis Registry. Bedrocan and Tweed, along with another licensed producer, are supporting the launch of the Quebec Registry via funding provided to the Canadian Consortium for the Investigation of Cannabinoids (CCIC), and the CCIC has provided a grant to the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC), to support the first year of the Registry's operations.

"This will be one of the world's largest studies on the therapeutic effects of medical cannabis, and will generate extremely valuable patient-level data on treatment benefits, risks and side effects," said Marc Wayne, President of Bedrocan Canada. "Tens of thousands of Canadian patients are currently using cannabis to manage symptoms from conditions ranging from chronic pain, to certain mental illnesses, multiple sclerosis, arthritis, spinal cord injury, HIV/AIDS, intractable forms of epilepsy and other conditions. We are launching this study to advance the science associated with medical cannabis, to provide the medical community with useful insights into its effect on quality of life, and to gather data specific to the effects of Bedrocan and Tweed strains in patients who use our products."

The principal investigator for the study is Dr. Martin A. Katzman, Director of the START (Stress, Trauma, Anxiety, Rehabilitation and Treatment) Clinic for Mood and Anxiety Disorders, and on faculty at both the Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto as well as the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). Dr. Katzman is also Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Anxiety Disorders Association of Canada and a member of Bedrocan Canada's Medical Advisory Board.

"As the number of patients using medical cannabis increases, we have an urgent need to add to the body of literature and compile real-world data on who is using medical cannabis, how patients respond to prescribed cannabis, and what it can and cannot achieve as a treatment option," said Dr. Katzman. "No one in the medical community is recommending medical cannabis as a first-line therapy, but we know it is being used increasingly by patients refractory to conventional prescription drugs, or who cannot tolerate the side effects of conventional therapies. This study will provide the medical community with data we need, to understand how medical cannabis affects quality of life in patients with a number of different diagnoses and treatment regimens."

The clinical study will be launching with an initial three sites in Ontario and British Columbia: Wellmedica in Woodbridge, Ontario, Greendot Medical Clinic in Brantford, Ontario, and Greenleaf Medical Clinic in Abbotsford, British Columbia. Physicians and clinics who are interested in supporting this option for their patients and would like to contribute to the growing body of evidence for the appropriate therapeutic use of cannabis are encouraged to contact or for more information.

DSG, Inc., a leading clinical data capture and management company based in Malvern, Pennsylvania, will provide their flagshipeCaseLink™ electronic data capture (EDC) and Electronic Patient Reported Outcomes (ePRO) services for the study.

About Bedrocan

Bedrocan Canada is focused on clinical research, technologically-advanced, automated production processes, innovative product development, and environmentally responsible production and operation. The Company produces six strains of medical cannabis, and has two facilities in the Greater Toronto Area licensed by Health Canada under the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations. Bedrocan Canada and its licensor Bedrocan Beheer BV (Netherlands) are the only companies in the world currently capable of producing standardized full-bud, pharmaceutical-grade medicinal cannabis.

About Tweed Marijuana Inc.

Tweed Marijuana Inc. is Canada's first publicly traded medical marijuana company and the first geographically diversified producer with a total of four licenses under the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations. Through its wholly owned subsidiaries, Tweed, Tweed Farms, and Bedrocan Canada, the Company operates three state-of-the-art production facilities in Ontario, and distributes marijuana across the country to Canadian patients managing a host of medical conditions. The Company is dedicated to educating healthcare practitioners, providing consistent access to high quality medication, and furthering the public's understanding of how marijuana is used for medical purposes.

Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.


SOURCE Bedrocan Cannabis Corp


Alberta mom denied marijuana prescription for daughter turns to Ontario

Sarah Wilkinson and her nine-year old daughter Mia at Canadian Cannabis Clinics in St. Catharines on Monday, Sept. 14, 2015. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Peter Power

TORONTO -- An Alberta mother whose daughter has severe epilepsy has travelled to Ontario for a medical marijuana prescription after the girl's doctor said he was no longer allowed to provide permission to purchase the product.TORONTO -- An Alberta mother whose daughter has severe epilepsy has travelled to Ontario for a medical marijuana prescription after the girl's doctor said he was no longer allowed to provide permission to purchase the product.

In 2013, Sarah Wilkinson had started extracting cannabis oil from dried marijuana -- purchased from a licensed grower with a prescription from a neurologist at Alberta Children's Hospital -- to prevent life-threatening seizures in her eight-year-old daughter Mia.

But in July, the physician declined to renew the prescription because of a hospital policy based on the position of Alberta Health Services, the provincial health authority, which does not support the use of medical marijuana for pediatric patients with epilepsy.

Wilkinson said the cannabis oil is the only therapy that has worked to stop Mia's seizures, caused by a rare type of epilepsy called Ohtahara syndrome.

Despite taking 30 to 40 anti-convulsive pills daily, Mia would suffer up to 100 seizures a day, said her mother. But since starting daily doses of oral cannabis oil 19 months ago, she has not had a single seizure.

On Monday, Mia was seen by a doctor at the Canadian Cannabis Clinic in St. Catharines, Ont., and left with a prescription for dried marijuana, which her mother can fill from a federally licensed producer after returning to their Airdrie, Alta., home.

"It's a big relief. I don't have to worry about when I run out of her meds," said her mother, who had been worried about her dwindling supply of medical-grade marijuana purchased with the initial prescription.

Wilkinson said she turned to cannabis because nothing else was helping her child, whose seizures could be so severe she would stop breathing and have to be resuscitated and rushed to hospital.

"I really took a big leap of faith with that," she said of the cannabis oil, adding that within 24 hours of the first dose, Mia's seizures had completely stopped.

Without the treatment, "we would have waited for the next big seizure and she would have died. There's not a really nice way to say that.

"Now, we can all breathe."

For Mia, tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, appears to be the ingredient in marijuana that controls her seizures, while others with different forms of epilepsy benefit from another component of the plant called cannabidiol, or CBD.

Pharmacologist-toxicologist McIntyre Burnham, co-director of the Epilepsy Research Program of the Ontario Brain Institute in Toronto, said about 30 per cent of people with seizures don't respond to any anti-convulsive medications.

His program plans to seek Health Canada approval for a clinical trial in adults of a cannabidiol in capsule form being developed by Canadian medical marijuana producer Tilray, which he hopes will start in about a year.

While THC does stop seizures in some people, it's also the active ingredient in marijuana that "makes you high," said Burnham, whereas CBD does not.

Researchers agree clinical trials are needed to determine if the various strains and extracts of marijuana can benefit patients with a variety of conditions, and cannabidiol appears "quite promising" for epilepsy, he said.

But "people are thinking it's a wonder drug. I think it's too early to say that ... It's not going to be for everyone. It will help some people and not help others."

Kunvar Mudhar does believe CBD is a wonder drug.

A year ago, she started giving cannabis oil high in CBD to her son Zen, who has intractable epilepsy related to cerebral palsy that is resistant to all anti-convulsive medications.

As a baby, he had been put on a special diet, which reduced the number and severity of his seizures -- but he was still experiencing about 150 a day.

"The first night I gave him the first dose, we started off very low," said Mudhar of Mississauga, Ont., who makes cannabis oil from dried marijuana purchased through a doctor's prescription.

Within a day, the number of Zen's seizures dropped to about 30, and with a slight increase in the dose, they disappeared for months.

Mudhar had been treating Zen, now 7, with an oil high in CBD and low in THC, but she also had on hand an oil extract she'd prepared with a two-to-one ratio of CBD to THC.

One night in February, her son suffered a grand mal seizure, despite the daily cannabis therapy.

"His body was jerking. He started to turn grey-blue," she said. "At that point, I had nothing else to give him. I had already called the paramedics and was waiting for them to come.

"The last thing I did was grab that (higher THC-dose) oil and rub it on his gums -- and the seizure stopped."

Mudhar said she would have been happy if the cannabis oil had just reduced his seizures by a significant amount.

"But this is amazing. To me, this is more than a miracle that Zen has seizure-free days."


Federal medical marijuana raids not part of Vancouver police plans

A Star investigation revealed that Health Canada had so little sway over drug companies that an earlier request by the regulator to ban drug imports from an Apotex facility in Bangalore, India, was ignored by the company.

Health Canada emails warn medical marijuana shops they have two weeks to shut down

Vancouver police say they are not planning any raids on local pot dispensaries after Health Canada reportedly sent out letters warning operators they have two weeks to shutdown or face an RCMP crackdown.

"Our position on the marijuana stores has not changed," said a statement issued by Const. Brian Montague on Friday morning.

"We have a great relationship with the RCMP and work together often to tackle regional issues," he said.

"The RCMP have the authority to enforce the Criminal Code anywhere in Canada, but I doubt they have the desire to spend time, money, and reallocate resources to a city policed by the VPD."

On Wednesday Health Canada sent out letters to 13 illegal marijuana dispensaries and compassion clubs across the country, warning the RCMP could raid them if they do not stop advertising and selling marijuana immediately, even those in cities where local police have tolerated them.

The letters come after Vancouver City Council approved new regulations to license medical marijuana dispensaries. At the time federal Health Minister Rona Ambrose said the operations remained illegal and federal government remained committed to shutting them down.

"Further to the Minister of Health's announcement on August 1, 2015, the department took steps to proactively monitor all forms of marijuana advertising and promotion," a spokesperson for Health Canada told CBC News.

"On September 9, 2015, the department (Office of Medical Cannabis) sent 13 letters to organizations who were found to be illegally advertising the sale of marijuana.

"The letters require that all advertising activities with marijuana cease. If continued non-compliance is identified, the Department may refer the case to law enforcement agencies for appropriate action."

Puzzling demands

One of the operators who received the letter by email on Wednesday was Jamie Shaw with the B.C. Compassion Club in Vancouver.

Weeds Glass and Gifts

Vancouver police execute search warrants at the Weed Glass and Gifts shop in Kitsilano in April, over concerns the shop was allegedly selling products to minors. (Stephanie Mercier/CBC)

Shaw says she was puzzled by the demand that the society stop advertising, which she said it does not do.

"The letter said something about advertising in the subject line, but then didn't actually explain it at all, and actually started talking about Bill [C-17], and basically said that we had to stop and cease and desist all advertising of cannabis products, which is not something that we do," said Shaw.

Lawyer Kirk Tousaw, who worked on the landmark Supreme Court of Canada ruling on cannabis extracts, calls the move unprecedented and inappropriate.

"I think it opens a giant can of worms, it's really doing an end-run around the elected officials in Vancouver as well as the Vancouver Police Department."

Police in Vancouver have generally adopted a hands-off approach to the marijuana dispensaries.

Health Canada Letter.
Adobe Acrobat Document 80.5 KB

Breaking: California Lawmakers Finally Tackle Medical Marijuana

early 20 years after California voters approved the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes, lawmakers finally agreed on a package of bills to create the first statewide licensing and operating rules for pot growers and retail weed outlets. They did so in the face of a likely ballot initiative next year to legalize recreational pot.

The framework seeks to manage medical marijuana from seed to smoke, calling for 17 separate license categories, detailed labeling requirements and a product tracking system complete with bar codes and shipping manifests.

"California has fallen behind the rest of the nation and failed to ensure a comprehensive regulatory structure," said Assemblyman Reggie Jones-Sawyer, D-Los Angeles. "This industry is the wild, wild west, and we must take steps to address it."

If enacted as drafted, the legislation would impose strict controls on an industry that never has had to comply with any and provide a template for how recreational marijuana might be treated if it is legalized. The Brown administration helped craft the package, and he was expected to sign it


Bubba at Broadway...  it looks awesome


Colorado Generates More Tax Revenue from Marijuana Than From Alcohol

The state of Colorado, which is considered the forefather of the fully legal cannabis trade in the United States, reportedly generated more tax revenue in the last fiscal year than what was raised from the sale of alcohol.

New data released by the Colorado Department of Revenue indicates the state managed to collect more than $70 million from the sale of cannabis, while earning less than $42 million from the alcohol industry.

Supporters responsible for the passing of Colorado’s Amendment 64—creating the nation’s first legal cannabis market—say the latest figures prove that cannabis customers are more than worthy ofWednesday’s tax holiday.

“Marijuana taxes have been incredibly productive over the past year, so this tax holiday is a much-deserved day off,” Mason Tvert, director of communications for the Marijuana Policy Project, said in a statement. “This will be the one day out of the year when the state won’t generate significant revenue. Over the other 364 days, it will bring in tens of millions of dollars that will be reinvested in our state.”

The exact accounting released earlier this week shows the state earned an impressive $69,898,059 in tax revenue from the sale of pot products in the fiscal year of 2014-15.

One of the reasons the marijuana industry generated so much more tax revenue than alcohol is because its customers typically spend more on weed than they do on booze. Another is that the tax system attached to Colorado cannabis sales is set up to collect massive amounts of cash. In addition to the regular 2.9 percent sales tax, the state also enjoys a 10 percent special sales tax on retail marijuana and another 15 percent on wholesale transfers.

That’s roughly 28 percent of every pot transaction going to the state.

“It’s crazy how much revenue our state used to flush down the drain by forcing marijuana sales into the underground market,” Tvert said. “It’s even crazier that so many states are still doing it. Tax revenue is just one of many good reasons to replace marijuana prohibition with a system of regulation.”

No, what’s crazy is that we are constantly hearing reports that a lot of Colorado stoners are still purchasing their weed from the black market to avoid paying the high taxes. For the state to collect $70 million and still miss revenue that is being spent on the illicit market, there is no telling what the potential is for pot taxes (in any state) once the federal government completely removes the black market from the equation by legalizing the leaf nationwide.


Rockstar , Burmese & God's Green Crack 

Some killing Rockstar Heavy Indica at Broadway and Hastings 


Granville Got some Strong God's Green Crack  .. hurry up..  will be out by the end of the day 


and Burmese strain (hybrid almost 50%-50%)  is available at Broadway, Granville and Hastings, 


It’s In The Air: Scientists Measure THC in The Atmosphere

In order to get a glimpse into what drugs we do, law enforcement scientists do things like measure drug metabolites in wastewater. 

Scientists recently measured drugs in the air at air quality monitoring facilities all over Italy in an attempt to gain knowledge on consumption of nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, ketamine, heroin and cannabis. In Europe, the overall most common illicit substance in the air was THC and other cannabinoids. They found more THC generally in indoor air than outdoors, and they found far more cannabinoids in the air overall in the winter (1.3 -21 ng/m3) than in the summer (0.09 -0.25 ng/m3). Indoor air also had higher concentrations of caffeine and nicotine. Cocaine came second to THC in Europe, but in South America they found more cocaine than THC.

Substances like ketamine, methamphetamine and heroin were not common in the air overall, but scientists were able to detect slightly elevated amounts of ketamine and methamphetamine in places like nightclubs where consumption typically spikes. Cocaine and THC in the air also spiked on the weekend, whereas methamphetamine stayed relatively consistent seven days a week.

Scientists found correlations between the concentration of THC in the air and high relative humidity, low wind speeds and low temperatures indicating that stagnant air favored high levels of ambient THC. This means higher levels of THC found in the air during the winter could be due to physical factors, and don’t necessarily mean that people consume more cannabis in the winter. 

While measuring illegal drugs in the air is certainly an interesting practice, even the authors of this paper mentioned it’s not as effective as measuring drug metabolites in wastewater and is not an accepted method. So put it in the air, nobody cares.


Growing medicinal marijuana a possibility in Victoria as Government moves to legalise cannabis oil

Labels on two vials of medicinal cannabis.

Victoria could begin growing marijuana for medicinal purposes, as the Andrews Government moves to legalise the use of cannabis oil in exceptional circumstances.

The Government received a Victorian Law Reform Commission report on how to go about making it legal, which will be tabled in Parliament in the next fortnight.

The state does not have the power to import the drug, leading to the likelihood it would need to be grown locally.

The Government made a pre-election promise to legalise medicinal cannabis oil for "exceptional circumstances".

Health Minister Jill Hennessey said medicinal cannabis oil could make a huge difference when other medicines did not work.

"I've met many parents whose use of medicinal cannabis has significantly changed the quality of life of their children — these are kids with severe epilepsy, and a range of other syndromes," she said.

"Those parents have been forced to choose between breaking the law or treating their children in a way that has been extremely effective for them.

"We want to end that choice, and that's why we asked the Law Reform Commission how we should go about legalising medicinal cannabis, not if we should."

The national policy manager at the Australian Drug Foundation, Geoff Munro, said he supported the idea

"I can't see there is a problem with manufacturing it locally," he said.

"It seems appropriate that Victoria could produce its own supply, after all Australia already produces opium poppies for the production of morphine in Tasmania.

"But obviously the cultivation would have to be quite secure. Access would have to be restricted."

He said poppies had proven to be one of the major drivers of Tasmania's economy, and it could provide a boost in Victoria.

Greens leader Greg Barber said he supported the move, but it would need co-operation from Canberra.

"You've got everything from the growing, the production, the prescribing and the consumption that all needs legal support, and much of that is covered under federal law," he said.

Use of cannabis oil must be 'safe, secure', Government says

Mr Munro said the public was able to distinguish the difference between therapeutic and recreational use, but there would need to be very clear guidelines in place.

"We are in favour of Victorians and Australians having access to the best medical care, and if cannabis products can provide superior outcomes for people who are unwell and suffering various ailments we are in favour of [it]," he said.

"As long as we draw a distinction between medicinal and other uses.

"We can't see a problem, as long as the cannabis products are prescribed under medical supervision, the dosage is controlled and the outcomes are evaluated according to scientific trial."

While medicinal cannabis is legal in dozens of states in the United States and many European countries, Victoria would become the first Australian jurisdiction to permit its use.

Ms Hennessey said she could not outline an exact date when the changes would be introduced, but the Government would make good on its election promise.

"This is a matter of great complexity, and we need to look at all sorts of things like how do you get supply, what category of patients should get access, what regulation you put around it, how do we make sure it's not subject to abuse," she said.

"We want to make sure we do it in a way that is safe, effective and sustainable."


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Why is Cannabis Not Already on the Shelves for Treating Arthritis?

Few members of the medical community that have done their research will be able to deny pot’s ability to treat, and even prevent the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, the issue on the table is how to administer it. The medical establishment continuously delays the acceptance of cannabinoid drugs, without batting an eye when powerfully addictive opiates reach the market time and time again.

The anti-inflammatory effect of cannabis could have groundbreaking consequences in the world of drugs, but some researchers are currently beating around the bush to create medicines that take advantage of this without getting patients high. We don’t recall drug makers being concerned about the overwhelmingly addictive and psychoactive effects of opiate painkillers, so why the concern with getting a little stoned?

Cannabis has a long history of use for treating pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis, anautoimmune disorder that causes painful inflammation of the joints. THC, the active ingredient in cannabis, targets the inflammation at its source by partially reducing the main driver in the body’s inflammatory response, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). One of the best-selling products of all time is a drug that also inhibits TNF, but at a much more powerful level.

Sativex, a whole-plant extract cannabis medicine designed and manufactured in England, “showed positive results in Phase II placebo-controlled trial in treating pain due to rheumatoid arthritis," and though the side-effects were reported as minimal, that’s not quite good enough for policy-makers in the US. Some researchers in the United States are figuring ways to target cannabinoid receptors in the body (which mediate most of pot’s effects on the body and mind) in a way that does not get anyone high. Millions of dollars of taxpayer money are going into developing medicines that avoid marijuana’s “addictive” and “psychologically damaging” side effects; never mind opiate painkillers that not only cause powerful physical dependence, but also act as a gateway to intravenous heroin use.

The latest research suggests using a drug, called a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, which causes the body to accumulate anandamide, the neurotransmitter the body uses to target its cannabinoid receptors. Since anandamide does not get you high, an FAAH inhibitor might, in theory, be the answer to the question of how to take advantage of the medicinal effects of cannabis without getting anyone stoned, but the evidence still isn’t quite there. Research done on rats using FAAH inhibitors shows that they may not work as well as THC (or other cannabinoid drugs) in reducing pain, and they might have unknown negative effects on the human body.

It’s time for medical researchers and policy-makers to get over the effects of cannabis and accept the plant’s medicinal properties for what they are, instead of trying to toy with the nation’s cannabinoid systems in a way nature did not intend us to.


How Cannabis Legalization Has Impacted Impaired Driving in Washington State


You've likely heard that regulating cannabis markets will lead to more stoned drivers on the road. Although the evidence in support of this claim is weak, it's repeated time and time again. So we thought we would ask members of law enforcement from Washington State, where cannabis markets were legalized and regulated under Initiative 502 in November 2012, what they think of this claim.

In this interview, Sheriff John Urquhart of King County, and John Schochet, Deputy City Attorney for Policy and Constituent Affairs from the Seattle City Attorney's Office, share how they think regulation has impacted impaired driving.

A claim we often hear is that cannabis regulation will lead to greater impaired driving. What has your experience of cannabis impaired driving been since legalizing and regulating cannabis markets in Washington State?

Sheriff John Urquhart: The Washington State Patrol's numbers indicate that, despite the legalization of recreational marijuana, driving under the influence (DUI) has not measurably increased. My experience as Sheriff, and the experience of my officers, reflects this. Some people drove impaired on marijuana before legalization, and about the same number will do so after legalization.

John Schochet: Anecdotally, I do think you are getting more people driving under the influence of marijuana. Cannabis legalization does not seem to have increased DUIs overall, though it might be that some cannabis DUIs are substituting for alcohol DUIs. Overall, DUI increases are not an enormous problem when it comes to marijuana legalization, but it could be if left unchecked.

How has Initiative 502 impacted the way individuals are convicted of driving under the influence of cannabis?

Schochet: First, it's worth emphasizing that cannabis legalization didn't mean that impaired driving was legalized. What it did do was make it easier to convict people who are actually driving stoned, rather than those who simply show evidence of cannabis use in their blood.

There are two substances that can be determined by a blood test: Carboxy-THC and active THC. Carboxy THC doesn't indicate impairment because it stays in your blood for a long time. It just shows that you used cannabis at some point. Active THC actually shows impairment.

Without other evidence of impairment, basing conviction on carboxy alone is unreasonable. But before 502, a lot of people were being convicted of driving under the influence of cannabis based on just carboxy in the blood. Initiative 502 created an objective standard for determining cannabis impairment of 5 nanograms of active THC per milliliter of whole blood (ng/ml). So this objective standard created under regulation is a significant improvement compared to what a lot of prosecutors were using before.

Urquhart: Investigating impairment solely for marijuana use has historically been a little tricky. The officer would have to prove impairment based on his or her observations of the driver, and often a drug recognition expert would have to observe the driver as well. With the new per se limits on THC, however, it has become much easier to investigate and prosecute a driver for being impaired solely from marijuana.

So you have better guidelines for detecting cannabis impairment. How is that panning out in implementation? 

Schochet: There are challenges, particularly because you need a blood test to accurately determine cannabis impairment, and you need it quickly. Why? Because you can't trace back how impaired someone was when they were driving based on the active THC in their blood two hours after they drove.

Getting blood is tricky because we can't suspend your license if you refuse to take a blood test (like we can if someone refuses to take a breath test), and because in Washington State you need a warrant to forcibly take someone's blood.

These problems aside, you can also convict someone by subjectively proving, beyond a reasonable doubt, that the person was under the influence of cannabis while driving. So, we are working on getting more police trained to identify marijuana intoxication. As more get trained, we are able to more effectively enforce the laws around cannabis impaired driving.

Beyond greater police training to detect it, is there anything else we can do to better address cannabis impaired driving?

Schochet: Public education is key. We've spent the last several decades educating people about the dangers of driving drunk and this has been, overall, a very successful effort.

Unfortunately, we are not there yet with marijuana. A lot of heavy users actually believe that it is fine to drive stoned. Maybe it is not as dangerous as alcohol or dangerous in the same way as alcohol, but our view of the evidence is that driving stoned is a problem. This education piece - effectively informing people that although cannabis is safe enough to be legal, it is not safe to drive under the influence of cannabis - is tricky.

Given all your experience, how do you respond to the claim that we shouldn't legalize and regulate cannabis because it will lead to more stoned drivers?

Schochet: Is there a concern with impaired driving? Absolutely. It's a huge issue with alcohol and has been for a long time. But our response isn't to ban alcohol. Our response is to go after people who drive impaired and to engage in public safety campaigns. So when it comes to impaired driving, I view it as something we should be worried about, but it is not a justification for banning marijuana.

Urquhart: The truth of the matter is that regulation will come with harms. The key is weighing the costs and benefits of a regulated vs. unregulated market. We have been fighting a futile drug war for over 40 years. I'm pleased we are not allowing the fear of change to impede the search for a better way.